The 'Real' Satoshi Nakamoto: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know

[Part - 36] Large college ebooks/eTextbooks thread for cheap rates [$4 to $25]

  1. Microelectronic Circuits, 6th Edition: Adel S. Sedra & Kenneth C. Smith
  2. Concepts and Case Analysis in the Law of Contracts, (Concepts and Insights) 7th Edition: Marvin Chirelstein
  3. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 6th Edition: Alan Brinkley
  4. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing, 5th Edition: Betty Rolling Ferrell & Judith A. Paice
  5. Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications, 1st Edition: Lawrence Ang
  6. Direct Social Work Practice (Social Work in the New Century), 1st Edition: Mary C. Ruffolo
  7. Manufacturing Processes for Design Professionals, Reprint Edition: Rob Thompson
  8. Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 3rd Edition: American Nurses Association
  9. Discovering Psychology, 8th Edition: Sandra E. Hockenbury & Susan A. Nolan
  10. Economics: Theory and Practice, 11th Edition: Patrick J. Welch & Gerry F. Welch
  11. Gardner's Art through the Ages: Backpack Edition, Book A: Antiquity, 15th Edition: Fred S. Kleiner
  12. Fundamentals of Financial Management, Concise 7th Edition: Eugene F. Brigham & Joel F. Houston
  13. Police Administration: Structures, Processes, and Behavior, 9th Edition: Charles R. Swanson & Leonard J. Territo & Robert W. Taylor
  14. South-Western Federal Taxation 2020: Individual Income Taxes, 43rd Edition: James C. Young & Annette Nellen & William H. Hoffman & William A. Raabe & David M. Maloney
  15. The Traumatized Brain: A Family Guide to Understanding Mood, Memory, and Behavior after Brain Injury, 1st Edition: Vani Rao & Sandeep Vaishnavi
  16. The Practice of Computing Using Python, 3rd Edition: William F. Punch & Richard Enbody
  17. Cognition: Exploring the Science of the Mind, 6th Edition: Daniel Reisberg
  18. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 7th Edition: Sue C. Wortham & Belinda J. Hardin
  19. Drugs in American Society, 10th Edition: Erich Goode
  20. Essentials of Psychology: Concepts and Applications, 5th Edition: Jeffrey S. Nevid
  21. The Curious Researcher: A Guide to Writing Research Papers, 9th Edition: Bruce Ballenger
  22. Introduction to Radiologic Technology, 7th Edition: La Verne Tolley Gurley & William J. Callaway
  23. Organic Chemistry, 7th Edition: William H. Brown & Brent L. Iverson & Eric Anslyn & Christopher S. Foote
  24. Essentials of Marketing Research, 5th Edition: William G. Zikmund & Barry J. Babin
  25. The Mind's Machine: Foundations of Brain and Behavior, 3rd Edition: Neil V. Watson & S. Marc Breedlove
  26. Public Relations Cases, 9th Edition: Jerry A. Hendrix & Darrell C. Hayes & Pallavi Damani Kumar
  27. Technical Drawing for Engineering Communication, 7th Edition: David E. Goetsch & Raymond L. Rickman & William S. Chalk
  28. The Legal Writing Handbook: Analysis, Research, and Writing, 7th Edition: Laurel Currie Oates & Anne Enquist & Jeremy Francis
  29. The Essential Counselor: Process, Skills, and Techniques, 3rd Edition: David R. Hutchinson
  30. Examination of Orthopedic & Athletic Injuries, 4th Edition: Chad Starkey & Sara D Brown
  31. Land Development Handbook, 3rd Edition: Dewberry
  32. Adapted Physical Education and Sport, 6th Edition: Joseph Winnick & David L. Porretta
  33. Commentaries and Cases on the Law of Business Organizations, 5th Edition: William T. Allen & Reiner Kraakman
  34. Essentials of Understanding Psychology, 13th Edition: Robert Feldman
  35. The Tracks We Leave: Ethics and Management Dilemmas in Healthcare, 2nd Edition (ACHE Management): Frankie Perry
  36. They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, 3rd Edition: Cathy Birkenstein & Gerald Graff & Tony Craine & Cyndee Maxwell
  37. Counseling Strategies and Interventions, 8th Edition: Sherry Cormier & Harold L. Hackney
  38. Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications, 3rd Edition: Stephen M. Roberts & Robert C. James & Phillip L. Williams
  39. Electromagnetics, 1st Edition: Branislav M. Notaros
  40. Product Design and Development, 6th Edition: Karl Ulrich & Steven Eppinger
  41. Common Diseases of Companion Animals, 3rd Edition: Alleice Summers
  42. Public Finance, Global Edition, 10th Edition: Ted Gayer & Harvey Rosen
  43. The American Political System, Core 3rd Edition: Ken Kollman
  44. Conflict Narratives in Middle Childhood: The Social, Emotional, and Moral Significance of Story-Sharing, 1st Edition: Marsha D. Walton & Alice J. Davidson
  45. Working With Challenging Parents of Students With Special Needs, 1st Edition: Jean Cheng Gorman
  46. Written and Interpersonal Communication: Methods for Law Enforcement, 5th Edition: Harvey Wallace & Cliff Roberson
  47. The Philosophical Journey: An Interactive Approach, 6th Edition: William Lawhead
  48. Calculus, 3rd Edition: Monty J. Strauss & Gerald L. Bradley & Karl J. Smith
  49. An Introduction to Programming with C++, 8th Edition: Diane Zak
  50. Health Care Information Systems: A Practical Approach for Health Care Management, 4th Edition: Karen A. Wager & Frances W. Lee & John P. Glaser
  51. Cracking the AP Calculus AB Exam 2020, Premium Edition: The Princeton Review
  52. Practical Research Methods for Nonprofit and Public Administrators, 1st Edition: Elizabeth O'Sullivan
  53. Choices in Relationships: An Introduction to Marriage and the Family, 10th Edition: David Knox & Caroline Schacht
  54. Accounting Fundamentals for Health Care Management, 3rd Edition: Steven A. Finkler & David M. Ward & Thad Calabrese
  55. Leadership in a Diverse and Multicultural Environment: Developing Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills, 1st Edition: Dr. Mary L. Connerley & Paul B. Pedersen
  56. Making Sustainability Work, 2nd Edition: Marc J. Epstein & Adriana Rejc Buhovac
  57. Fundamental Accounting Principles, 24th Edition: John J Wild & Ken W. Shaw
  58. Operations Management in Healthcare: Strategy and Practice, 1st Edition: Corinne M. Karuppan & Michael R. Waldrum & Nancy E. Dunlap
  59. Pioneers of Psychology, 5th Edition: Raymond E. Fancher & Alexandra Rutherford
  60. Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 5th Edition: Cecil B. Bozarth & Robert B. Handfield
  61. Guide to Presentations, 4th Edition: Lynn Russell & Mary Munter
  62. Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship, 1st Edition: Robert C. Martin
  63. Perspectives on International Relations: Power, Institutions, and Ideas, 5th Edition: Henry R. Nau
  64. Marketing, 7th Edition: Dhruv Grewal & Michael Levy
  65. Foundations: An Introduction to the Profession of Physical Therapy, 1st Edition: Stephen J. Carp
  66. Employment Discrimination: Procedure, Principles, and Practice, 2nd Edition: Joseph A. Seiner
  67. Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 4th Edition: Virginia P. Studdert & Clive C. Gay & Douglas C. Blood
  68. International Organizations: Politics, Law, Practice, 3rd Edition: Ian Hurd
  69. The Making of a Teenage Service Class: Poverty and Mobility in an American City, 1st Edition: Ranita Ray
  70. International Marketing, 16th Edition: Philip Cateora
  71. Health Education: Creating Strategies for School & Community Health, 4th Edition: Glen G. Gilbert & Robin G. Sawyer & Elisa Beth McNeill
  72. Entrepreneurial Marketing: Sustaining Growth in All Organisations, 2nd Edition: Ian Chaston
  73. Operations Research: An Introduction, Global Edition, 10th Edition: Taha
  74. Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications, 3rd Edition: Stephen M. Roberts & Robert C. James & Phillip L. Williams
  75. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, 4th Edition: Gary Dessler
  76. BPMN Method and Style, Second Edition, with BPMN Implementer's Guide: Bruce Silver
  77. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing: From Suffering to Hope, 1st Edition: Mertie L. Potter & Mary D. Moller
  78. Gardner's Art through the Ages:The Western Perspective, Volume I, 15th Edition: Fred S. Kleiner
  79. Sales Management: Analysis and Decision Making, 9th Edition: Thomas N. Ingram & Raymond W. LaForge & Ramon A. Avila
  80. Principles of Biomedical Instrumentation, 1st Edition: Andrew G. Webb
  81. Nursing Interventions & Clinical Skills, 7th Edition: Anne Griffin Perry & Patricia A. Potter & Wendy Ostendorf
  82. Law, Business and Society, 12th Edition: Tony McAdams
  83. America: A Narrative History (Vol. One-Volume), 11th Edition: David E. Shi
  84. Chirelstein's Concepts and Case Analysis in the Law of Contracts, 7th Edition: Marvin Chirelstein
  85. Worksite Health Promotion, 3rd Edition: David H. Chenoweth
  86. The New Harbrace Guide: Genres for Composing, 3rd Edition: Cheryl Glenn
  87. Effective Writing: A Handbook for Accountants, 11th Edition: Claire B. May & Gordon S. May
  88. Modeling and Analysis of Dynamic Systems, 3rd Edition: Close Newell
  89. Nutrition Through the Life Cycle, 6th Edition: Judith E. Brown
  90. Media & Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication, 12th Edition: Richard Campbell & Christopher Martin & Bettina Fabos
  91. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 11th Edition: William L. Heward & Sheila R. Alber-Morgan & Moira Konrad
  92. American Public Opinion: Its Origins, Content, and Impact, 10th Edition: Robert S. Erikson & Kent L. Tedin
  93. Politics in America: 2018 Elections and Updates Edition, 11th Edition: Thomas R. Dye & Ronald K. Gaddie
  94. Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues, 9th Edition: Vincent Ryan Ruggiero
  95. Criminal Justice in Action, 10th Edition: Larry K. Gaines & Roger LeRoy Miller
  96. Crucial Conversations Tools for Talking When Stakes Are High, 2nd Edition: Kerry Patterson & Joseph Grenny & Ron McMillan & Al Switzler
  97. Labor Relations: Development, Structure, Process, 12th Edition: John A. Fossum
  98. Communication Law: Practical Applications in the Digital Age, 2nd Edition: Dom Caristi & William R Davie
  99. Wardlaw's Contemporary Nutrition: A Functional Approach, 5th Edition: Gordon Wardlaw
  100. Social Work Research Skills Workbook: A Step-by-Step Guide to Conducting Agency-Based Research, 1st Edition: Jacqueline Corcoran & Mary Secret
  101. Principles of Comparative Politics, 3rd Edition: William Roberts Clark & Matt Golder & Sona N. Golder
  102. Cambridge IELTS 7 Student's Book with Answers: Examination Papers from University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations: Cambridge ESOL
  103. Fixed Effects Regression Models (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences), 1st Edition: Paul D. Allison
  104. Trigonometry, 10th Edition: Ron Larson
  105. Occupational Health and Safety for the 21st Century, 1st Edition: Robert H. Friis
  106. Practicing Harm Reduction Psychotherapy: An Alternative Approach to Addictions, 2nd Edition: Patt Denning & Jeannie Little
  107. Statistics for the Social Sciences, 3rd Edition: R. Mark Sirkin
  108. Financial Markets and Institutions, 10th Edition: Jeff Madura
  109. Graphic Design History, 2nd Edition: Johanna Drucker & Emily McVarish
  110. Human Resource Management, 12th edition: Robert Konopaske & John Ivancevich
  111. Business Law: Text and Cases, 14th Edition: Kenneth W. Clarkson & Roger LeRoy Miller & Frank B. Cross
  112. Study Guide for Understanding Pathophysiology, 6th Edition: Sue E. Huether & Kathryn L. McCance
  113. Plain English for Lawyers, 6th Edition: Richard C. Wydick & Amy E. Sloan
  114. Product Design and Development, 7th Edition: Karl Ulrich
  115. The Life Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals, 4th Edition: Patricia C. Broderick & Pamela Blewitt
  116. Public Service Values, 1st Edition: Richard C. Box
  117. Economics, 2nd Edition: Dean Karlan
  118. Abnormal Psychology, 5th Canadian Edition: Gerald C. Davison & Kirk R. Blankstein & Gordon L. Flett & John M. Neale
  119. The American Political System: Core Third Edition, 2018 Election Update Edition: Ken Kollman
  120. Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition, 11th Edition: Sharon Rady Rolfes & Kathryn Pinna & Eleanor Noss Whitney
  121. Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Case Approach, 4th Edition: Nancy L. Murdock
  122. The Candidate: What It Takes to Win - and Hold - the White House, 1st Edition: Samuel L. Popkin
  123. Financial Statement Analysis and Valuation, 5th Edition: Zhang & Easton & McAnally & Sommers
  124. Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, 1st Edition: Jenny Preece & Yvonne Rogers & Helen Sharp
  125. High-Reliability Healthcare: Improving Patient Safety and Outcomes with Six Sigma, 2nd Edition: Robert Barry
  126. Elementary Information Security, 2nd Edition: Richard E. Smith
  127. Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, 4th Edition: Amy Brown
  128. In Small Things Forgotten: An Archaeology of Early American Life, Revised, Expanded, Subsequent Edition: James Deetz
  129. What Is This Thing Called Science?, 4th Edition: Alan F. Chalmers
  130. Business and Professional Communication: Plans, Processes, and Performance, 6th Edition: James R. DiSanza & Nancy J. Legge
  131. Java Concepts: Late Objects, 3rd Edition: Cay S. Horstmann
  132. Health & Wellness, 13th Edition: Gordon Edlin & Eric Golanty
  133. Everything's An Argument with Readings, 8th Edition: Andrea A. Lunsford & John J. Ruszkiewicz & Keith Walters
  134. Basics of the U.S. Health Care System, 3rd Edition: Nancy J. Niles
  135. Western Civilization: Volume B: 1300-1815, 10th Edition: Jackson J. Spielvogel
  136. Becoming a Master Manager: A Competing Values Approach, 6th Edition: Robert E. Quinn & David Bright & Sue R. Faerman & Michael P. Thompson
  137. McGraw-Hill's Taxation of Individuals, 2020 Edition, 11th Edition: Brian Spilker
  138. Campbell Biology in Focus, 3rd Edition: Lisa A. Urry & Michael L. Cain & Steven A. Wasserman & Peter V. Minorsky & Rebecca Orr
  139. Computer Security: Principles and Practice, Global Edition, 4th Edition: William Stallings & Lawrie Brown
  140. Lifespan Development: Lives in Context, 2nd Edition: Tara L. Kuther
  141. Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior, 17th Edition: Carl L Hart & Charles J. Ksir
  142. Enforcing Ethics: A Scenario-Based Workbook for Police & Corrections Recruits and Officers, 4th Edition: Debbie J. Goodman
  143. Mechanisms and Machines: Kinematics, Dynamics, and Synthesis, 1st Edition: Michael M. Stanisic
  144. Essentials of Biological Anthropology, 4th Edition: Clark Spencer Larsen
  145. Rhetorical Theory: An Introduction, 2nd Edition: Timothy Borchers & Heather Hundley
  146. International Law, 8th Edition: Malcolm N. Shaw
  147. The Communication Age: Connecting and Engaging, 2nd Edition: Autumn Edwards & Chad C. Edwards & Shawn T. Wahl & Scott A. Myers
  148. Introduction to Solid Modeling Using SOLIDWORKS 2019, 15th Edition: William E. Howard & Joseph Musto
  149. The Norton Field Guide to Writing, 5th Edition: Richard Bullock & Maureen Daly Goggin & Francine Weinberg
  150. Adobe InDesign CC Classroom in a Book (2018 release), 1st Edition: Kelly Kordes Anton & Tina DeJarld
  151. Principles of Neural Science, 5th Edition: Eric R. Kandel & James H. Schwartz & Thomas M. Jessell
  152. Anatomy & Physiology for Speech, Language, and Hearing, 5th Edition: J. Anthony Seikel & David G. Drumright & Douglas W. King
  153. Biological Science, 7th Edition: Scott Freeman & Kim Quillin & Lizabeth Allison & Michael Black & Greg Podgorski & Emily Taylor & Jeff Carmichael
  154. Critical Thinking: A Students Introduction, 6th Edition: Gregory Bassham & William Irwin & Henry Nardone & James Wallace
  155. Understanding Health Information Systems for the Health Professions: Jean A Balgrosky
  156. Child, Family, School, Community: Socialization and Support, 10th Edition: Roberta M. Berns
  157. ACSM's Introduction to Exercise Science, 2nd Edition: American College of Sports Medicine
  158. From Backpack to Briefcase: Professional Development in Health Care Administration, 1st Edition: Michael R. Meacham
  159. Cornerstones of Financial Accounting, 4th Edition: Jay Rich & Jeff Jones
  160. ADTs, Data Structures, and Problem Solving with C++, 2nd Edition: Larry R. Nyhoff
  161. Essentials of Athletic Injury Management, 10th Edition: William E. Prentice
  162. Transport Phenomena, Revised 2nd Edition: R. Byron Bird & Warren E. Stewart & Edwin N. Lightfoot
  163. Typographic Design: Form and Communication, 7th Edition: Rob Carter & Sandra Maxa & Mark Sanders & Philip B. Meggs & Ben Day
  164. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 4th Edition: Robert Parrino & David S. Kidwell & Thomas Bates & Stuart L. Gillan
  165. Physical Examination and Health Assessment, 8th Edition: Carolyn Jarvis
  166. The Art of Strategy: A Game Theorist's Guide to Success in Business and Life: Avinash K. Dixit & Barry J. J. Nalebuff
  167. Financial Accounting: Information for Decisions, 9th Edition: John Wild
  168. Voyages in World History, Volume 1, 3rd Edition: Valerie Hansen & Ken Curtis
  169. Calculus & Its Applications, 14th Edition: Larry J. Goldstein & David Lay & David I. Schneider & Nakhle H. Asmar
  170. Schaum's Outline of Essential Computer Mathematics, 1st Edition: Seymour Lipschutz
  171. Data Structures and Algorithms in Python, 1st Edition: Michael T. Goodrich
  172. Introduction to Public Health, 5th Edition: Mary-Jane Schneider
  173. Auditing: A Risk Based-Approach, 11th Edition: Karla M Johnstone-Zehms & Audrey A. Gramling & Larry E. Rittenberg
  174. The Elements of Social Scientific Thinking, 11th Edition: Todd Donovan & Kenneth R. Hoover
  175. Grammar and Usage, Naturally, 1st Edition: Larry Barkley & Christine Sandoval
  176. Understanding the Political World: A Comparative Introduction to Political Science, 12th Edition: James N. Danziger & Charles Anthony Smith
  177. ECON MICRO (with MindTap, 1 term (6 months) Printed Access Card), 6th Edition: William A. McEachern
  178. Microeconomics and Behaviour, 2nd Edition: Robert Frank & Edward Cartwright
  179. Countries and Concepts: Politics, Geography, Culture, 13th Edition: Michael G. Roskin
  180. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart (Volume 1), 5th Edition: Robert Tignor & Jeremy Adelman & Peter Brown
  181. Therapeutic Modalities: The Art and Science, 2nd Edition: Kenneth L. Knight
  182. Chemistry: An Atoms-Focused Approach, 2nd Edition: Thomas R. Gilbert & Rein V. Kirss & Stacey Lowery Bretz & Natalie Foster
  183. Psychological Assessment and Report Writing, 2nd Edition: Goldfinger Karen & Andrew M. Pomerantz
  184. Management: A Practical Introduction, 9th Edition: Angelo Kinicki & Brian K. Williams
  185. SELL, 6th Edition: Thomas N. Ingram & W. LaForge Raymond
  186. Race in America, 1st Edition: Matthew Desmond & Mustafa Emirbayer
  187. Principles of Physics: A Calculus-Based Text, Hybrid 5th Edition: Raymond A. Serway & John W. Jewett
  188. Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, 5th Edition: Amy Christine Brown
  189. The Thinking Person's Guide to Climate Change, 2nd Edition: Robert Henson
  190. Curriculum Leadership: Strategies for Development and Implementation, 5th Edition: Allan A. Glatthorn & Floyd A. Boschee & Bruce M. Whitehead & Bonni F. Boschee
  191. Essential Law for Social Work Practice in Canada, 1st Edition: Cheryl Regehr & Karima Kanani
  192. Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide, 16th Edition: James D. Lester
  193. Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans, 3rd Edition: Carol J. Green
  194. A Speaker's Guidebook: Text and Reference, 7th Edition: Dan O'Hair & Rob Stewart & Hannah Rubenstein
  195. The Norton Field Guide to Writing: with Readings and Handbook, 5th Edition: Richard Bullock & Maureen Daly Goggin & Francine Weinberg
  196. The Counseling Skills Practice Manual, 1st Edition: David R. Hutchinson
  197. C++ Without Fear: A Beginner's Guide That Makes You Feel Smart, 3rd Edition: Brian Overland
  198. Macroeconomics, 5th Edition: Paul Krugman & Robin Wells
  199. Marketing, 14th Edition: Roger A. Kerin & Steven W. Hartley
  200. Constitutional Law, 5th Edition: Erwin Chemerinsky
  201. We the People (Essentials Twelfth Edition), 12th Edition: Benjamin Ginsberg & Theodore J. Lowi & Margaret Weir & Caroline J. Tolbert & Andrea L. Campbell
  202. Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene, 10th Edition: Chris Le Baudour & J. David Bergeron & Keith Wesley
  203. Cengage Advantage Series: The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People, Volume II, 8th Edition: Paul S. Boyer & Clifford E. Clark
  204. Principles of Web Design: The Web Warrior Series (The Web Technologies Series), 6th Edition: Joel Sklar
  205. Ways of the World with Sources, Combined Volume: A Brief Global History, 4th Edition: Robert W. Strayer & Eric W. Nelson
  206. Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach, 2nd Edition: Michael E. Essington
  207. Genetic Analysis: An Integrated Approach, 2nd Edition: Mark F. Sanders & John L. Bowman
  208. America: Religions and Religion, 5th Edition: Catherine L. Albanese
  209. An Introduction to Project Management, Fifth Edition: Kathy Schwalbe
  210. Fitness and Wellness, 13th Edition: Wener W.K. Hoeger & Sharon A. Hoeger & Cherie I Hoeger & Amber L. Fawson
  211. Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry, 8th Edition: Anthony M. Graziano & Michael L. Raulin
  212. Intermediate Accounting, 10th Edition: David Spiceland
  213. Air Transportation: A Management Perspective, 8th Edition: John Wensveen
  214. Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences, 7th Edition: J. Robert Lilly & Francis T. Cullen & Richard A. Ball
  215. McKnight's Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation, 11th Edition: Darrel Hess & Dennis G. Tasa
  216. Empowerment Series: Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment, 11th Edition: Charles Zastrow & Karen K. Kirst-Ashman & Sarah L. Hessenauer
  217. Exploring Medical Language, 10th Edition: Myrna LaFleur Brooks & Danielle LaFleur Brooks
  218. Substance Abuse Counseling: Theory and Practice, 5th Edition: Patricia Stevens & Robert L. Smith
  219. Biology, 4th Edition: Robert Brooker & Eric Widmaier & Linda Graham & Peter Stiling
  220. Computer Networks and Internets, 6th Edition: Douglas E. Comer
  221. MIS, 9th Edition: Hossein Bidgoli
  222. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, 1st Edition: Michelle Alexander
  223. Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, 6th Edition: Robert M. Monczka & Robert B. Handfield & Larry C. Giunipero & James L. Patterson
  224. Negotiation: Readings, Exercises, and Cases, 7th Edition: Roy Lewicki
  225. Introduction to Global Business: Understanding the International Environment & Global Business Functions, 2nd Edition: Julian Gaspar & James Kolari & Richard Hise & Leonard Bierman & L. Murphy Smith
  226. Black Letter Outline on Criminal Law, 3rd Edition: Joshua Dressler
  227. Pathology for the Health Professions, 5th Edition: Ivan Damjanov
  228. The Challenge of Democracy: American Government in Global Politics, 14th Edition: Kenneth Janda & Jeffrey M. Berry & Jerry Goldman & Deborah Deborah & Paul Manna
  229. Principles of Human Physiology, 6th Edition: Cindy L. Stanfield
  230. Astronomy Today, 8th Edition: Eric Chaisson & Steve McMillan
  231. The Norton Introduction to Literature, Shorter Thirteenth Edition: Kelly J. Mays
  232. Introductory Statistics: Exploring the World Through Data, 3rd Edition: Robert Gould & Rebecca Wong & Colleen N. Ryan
  233. Using Multivariate Statistics, 7th Edition: Barbara Tabachnick & Linda Fidell
  234. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 6th Edition: Margo A. Mastropieri & Thomas E. Scruggs
  235. Voice & Vision: A Creative Approach to Narrative Filmmaking, 3rd Edition: Mick Hurbis-Cherrier
  236. Civil Procedure, 10th Edition: Stephen C. Yeazell & Joanna C. Schwartz
  237. Mechanics of Fluids, 5th Edition: Merle C. Potter & David C. Wiggert & Bassem H. Ramadan
  238. Database Systems: The Complete Book, 2nd Edition: Hector Garcia-Molina & Jeffrey D. Ullman & Jennifer Widom
  239. Conflict and Communication, 1st Edition: Fred E. Jandt
  240. Applying Nursing Process: The Foundation for Clinical Reasoning, 8th Edition: Rosalinda Alfaro-LeFevre
  241. Microbiology: An Introduction, 12th Edition: Gerard J. Tortora & Berdell R. Funke & Christine L. Case
  242. Epidemiology: Concepts and Methods, 1st Edition: William A. Oleckno
  243. Selling: Building Partnerships, 10th Edition: Stephen B Castleberry & John F Tanner
  244. Entrepreneurship, 10th Edition: Robert Hisrich
  245. Structural Analysis, 5th Edition: Russell C. Hibbeler
  246. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 11th Edition: Judi Nath & Edwin Bartholomew & Frederic Martini
  247. Financial Accounting, 5th Edition: David Spiceland & Wayne M Thomas & Don Herrmann
  248. Introduction to Management Accounting, 16th Edition: Charles T. Horngren & Gary L. Sundem & Jeff O. Schatzberg & Dave Burgstahler
  249. Estimating With Microsoft Excel, 3rd Edition: Jay P. Christofferson
  250. The Health Care Handbook: A Clear & Concise Guide to the United States Health Care System, 2nd Edition: Elisabeth Askin & Nathan Moore & Vikram Shankar
  251. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 8th Edition: Alan Brinkley & Andrew Huebner & John Giggie
  252. Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version, 13th Edition: Elaine N. Marieb & Lori A. Smith
  253. Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, Tests, and Issues, 4th Edition: Dawn P. Flanagan & Erin M. McDonough & Alan S. Kaufman
  254. Counseling Strategies and Interventions for Professional Helpers, 9th Edition: Sherry Cormier
  255. Discover Sociology, 4th Edition: William J. Chambliss & Daina S. Eglitis
  256. Principles of Tissue Engineering, 4th Edition: Robert Lanza & Robert Langer & Joseph P. Vacanti
  257. Semiconductor Device Fundamentals, 2nd Edition: Robert F. Pierret
  258. Group Counseling: Strategies and Skills, 8th Edition: Ed E. Jacobs & Christine J. Schimmel & Robert L. L. Masson & Riley L. Harvill
  259. Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 12th Edition: Carlos Coronel & Steven Morris
  260. Aeschylus II: The Oresteia, 3rd Edition: Aeschylus & David Grene & Richmond Lattimore & Mark Griffith & Glenn W. Most
  261. Moore's Essential Clinical Anatomy, 6th Edition: Anne M. R. Agur & Arthur F. Dalley
  262. Introductory Financial Accounting for Business, 1st Edition: Thomas Edmonds
  263. The Concise Book of Muscles, 4th Edition: Chris Jarmey
  264. The Art Of Public Speaking, 13th Edition: Stephen Lucas
  265. Strategic Interventions for People in Crisis, Trauma, and Disaster, 2nd Edition: Diana Sullivan Everstine
  266. Java For Everyone: Late Objects, 2nd Edition: Cay S. Horstmann
  267. Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles, 4th Edition: Laurie J. Vitt & Janalee P. Caldwell
  268. Employment Law: Cases and Materials, 6th Edition: Steven Willborn & Stewart Schwab & John Burton & Gillian Lester
  269. A Concise Introduction to Logic, 11th Edition: Patrick J. Hurley
  270. Maternal and Newborn Success: A Q&A Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking, 3rd Edition: Margot De Sevo
  271. Finance: Applications and Theory, 4th Edition: Marcia Cornett
  272. Contemporary Strategy Analysis Text Only, 8th Edition: Robert M. Grant
  273. Corporate Financial Accounting, 14th Edition: Carl Warren & James M. Reeve & Jonathan Duchac
  274. Construction Management, 5th Edition: Daniel W. Halpin & Bolivar A. Senior & Gunnar Lucko
  275. Security Analysis: Foreword by Warren Buffett, 6th Edition: Benjamin Graham & David Dodd & Warren Buffett
  276. Community Health Nursing: Caring for the Public's Health, 3rd Edition: Karen Saucier Lundy & Sharyn Janes
  277. Information Economics, 1st Edition: Urs Birchler & Monika Bütler
  278. Essentials of Oceanography, 13th Edition: Alan P. Trujillo & Harold V. Thurman
  279. Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past: Eviatar Zerubavel
  280. Coding Theory and Cryptography: The Essentials, 2nd Edition: D.C. Hankerson & Gary Hoffman & D.A. Leonard & Charles C. Lindner
  281. Health: The Basics, 13th Edition: Rebecca J. Donatelle
  282. International Relations, 11th Edition: Jon C. W. Pevehouse & Joshua S. Goldstein
  283. Abnormal Psychology: Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders, 8th Edition: Susan Krauss Whitbourne
  284. The Norton Field Guide to Writing: with Handbook, 5th Edition: Richard Bullock & Maureen Daly Goggin & Francine Weinberg
  285. Mosby's Pocket Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions, 8th Edition: Mosby
  286. Managerial Accounting for Managers, 5th Edition: Eric Noreen & Peter Brewer & Ray Garrison
  287. Canadian Business and Society : Ethics, Responsibility and Sustainability, 4th Canadian Edition: Robert W. Sexty
  288. The Past in Perspective: An Introduction to Human Prehistory, 7th Edition: Kenneth L. Feder
  289. The Sociology Project 2.5: Introducing the Sociological Imagination, 2nd Edition: Jeff Manza & Richard Arum & Lynne Haney
  290. Ebersole and Hess' Gerontological Nursing & Healthy Aging, 5th Edition: Theris A. Touhy & Kathleen F Jett
  291. Public Finance, 10th Edition: Harvey S Rosen & Ted Gayer
  292. AP Calculus AB & BC Prep Plus 2019-2020: 6 Practice Tests + Study Plans + Targeted Review & Practice + Online: Kaplan Test Prep
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  321. Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States: Dennis Mileti
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  323. Nursing Care Plans: Transitional Patient & Family Centered Care, 7th Edition: Lynda J Carpenito
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CRYPTOCURRENCY BITCOIN

CRYPTOCURRENCY BITCOIN
Bitcoin Table of contents expand: 1. What is Bitcoin? 2. Understanding Bitcoin 3. How Bitcoin Works 4. What's a Bitcoin Worth? 5. How Bitcoin Began 6. Who Invented Bitcoin? 7. Before Satoshi 8. Why Is Satoshi Anonymous? 9. The Suspects 10. Can Satoshi's Identity Be Proven? 11. Receiving Bitcoins As Payment 12. Working For Bitcoins 13. Bitcoin From Interest Payments 14. Bitcoins From Gambling 15. Investing in Bitcoins 16. Risks of Bitcoin Investing 17. Bitcoin Regulatory Risk 18. Security Risk of Bitcoins 19. Insurance Risk 20. Risk of Bitcoin Fraud 21. Market Risk 22. Bitcoin's Tax Risk What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is a digital currency created in January 2009. It follows the ideas set out in a white paper by the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto, whose true identity is yet to be verified. Bitcoin offers the promise of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms and is operated by a decentralized authority, unlike government-issued currencies.
There are no physical bitcoins, only balances kept on a public ledger in the cloud, that – along with all Bitcoin transactions – is verified by a massive amount of computing power. Bitcoins are not issued or backed by any banks or governments, nor are individual bitcoins valuable as a commodity. Despite it not being legal tender, Bitcoin charts high on popularity, and has triggered the launch of other virtual currencies collectively referred to as Altcoins.
Understanding Bitcoin Bitcoin is a type of cryptocurrency: Balances are kept using public and private "keys," which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical encryption algorithm that was used to create them. The public key (comparable to a bank account number) serves as the address which is published to the world and to which others may send bitcoins. The private key (comparable to an ATM PIN) is meant to be a guarded secret and only used to authorize Bitcoin transmissions. Style notes: According to the official Bitcoin Foundation, the word "Bitcoin" is capitalized in the context of referring to the entity or concept, whereas "bitcoin" is written in the lower case when referring to a quantity of the currency (e.g. "I traded 20 bitcoin") or the units themselves. The plural form can be either "bitcoin" or "bitcoins."
How Bitcoin Works Bitcoin is one of the first digital currencies to use peer-to-peer technology to facilitate instant payments. The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network, also known as "miners," are motivated by rewards (the release of new bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in bitcoin. These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New bitcoin is being released to the miners at a fixed, but periodically declining rate, such that the total supply of bitcoins approaches 21 million. One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places (100 millionths of one bitcoin), and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi. If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places. Bitcoin mining is the process through which bitcoins are released to come into circulation. Basically, it involves solving a computationally difficult puzzle to discover a new block, which is added to the blockchain and receiving a reward in the form of a few bitcoins. The block reward was 50 new bitcoins in 2009; it decreases every four years. As more and more bitcoins are created, the difficulty of the mining process – that is, the amount of computing power involved – increases. The mining difficulty began at 1.0 with Bitcoin's debut back in 2009; at the end of the year, it was only 1.18. As of February 2019, the mining difficulty is over 6.06 billion. Once, an ordinary desktop computer sufficed for the mining process; now, to combat the difficulty level, miners must use faster hardware like Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), more advanced processing units like Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), etc.
What's a Bitcoin Worth? In 2017 alone, the price of Bitcoin rose from a little under $1,000 at the beginning of the year to close to $19,000, ending the year more than 1,400% higher. Bitcoin's price is also quite dependent on the size of its mining network since the larger the network is, the more difficult – and thus more costly – it is to produce new bitcoins. As a result, the price of bitcoin has to increase as its cost of production also rises. The Bitcoin mining network's aggregate power has more than tripled over the past twelve months.
How Bitcoin Began
Aug. 18, 2008: The domain name bitcoin.org is registered. Today, at least, this domain is "WhoisGuard Protected," meaning the identity of the person who registered it is not public information.
Oct. 31, 2008: Someone using the name Satoshi Nakamoto makes an announcement on The Cryptography Mailing list at metzdowd.com: "I've been working on a new electronic cash system that's fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party. The paper is available at http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf." This link leads to the now-famous white paper published on bitcoin.org entitled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System." This paper would become the Magna Carta for how Bitcoin operates today.
Jan. 3, 2009: The first Bitcoin block is mined, Block 0. This is also known as the "genesis block" and contains the text: "The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks," perhaps as proof that the block was mined on or after that date, and perhaps also as relevant political commentary.
Jan. 8, 2009: The first version of the Bitcoin software is announced on The Cryptography Mailing list.
Jan. 9, 2009: Block 1 is mined, and Bitcoin mining commences in earnest.
Who Invented Bitcoin?
No one knows. Not conclusively, at any rate. Satoshi Nakamoto is the name associated with the person or group of people who released the original Bitcoin white paper in 2008 and worked on the original Bitcoin software that was released in 2009. The Bitcoin protocol requires users to enter a birthday upon signup, and we know that an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto registered and put down April 5 as a birth date. And that's about it.
Before Satoshi
Though it is tempting to believe the media's spin that Satoshi Nakamoto is a solitary, quixotic genius who created Bitcoin out of thin air, such innovations do not happen in a vacuum. All major scientific discoveries, no matter how original-seeming, were built on previously existing research. There are precursors to Bitcoin: Adam Back’s Hashcash, invented in 1997, and subsequently Wei Dai’s b-money, Nick Szabo’s bit gold and Hal Finney’s Reusable Proof of Work. The Bitcoin white paper itself cites Hashcash and b-money, as well as various other works spanning several research fields.
Why Is Satoshi Anonymous?
There are two primary motivations for keeping Bitcoin's inventor keeping his or her or their identity secret. One is privacy. As Bitcoin has gained in popularity – becoming something of a worldwide phenomenon – Satoshi Nakamoto would likely garner a lot of attention from the media and from governments.
The other reason is safety. Looking at 2009 alone, 32,489 blocks were mined; at the then-reward rate of 50 BTC per block, the total payout in 2009 was 1,624,500 BTC, which at today’s prices is over $900 million. One may conclude that only Satoshi and perhaps a few other people were mining through 2009 and that they possess a majority of that $900 million worth of BTC. Someone in possession of that much BTC could become a target of criminals, especially since bitcoins are less like stocks and more like cash, where the private keys needed to authorize spending could be printed out and literally kept under a mattress. While it's likely the inventor of Bitcoin would take precautions to make any extortion-induced transfers traceable, remaining anonymous is a good way for Satoshi to limit exposure.
The Suspects
Numerous people have been suggested as possible Satoshi Nakamoto by major media outlets. Oct. 10, 2011, The New Yorker published an article speculating that Nakamoto might be Irish cryptography student Michael Clear or economic sociologist Vili Lehdonvirta. A day later, Fast Company suggested that Nakamoto could be a group of three people – Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry – who together appear on a patent related to secure communications that were filed two months before bitcoin.org was registered. A Vice article published in May 2013 added more suspects to the list, including Gavin Andresen, the Bitcoin project’s lead developer; Jed McCaleb, co-founder of now-defunct Bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox; and famed Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki.
In December 2013, Techcrunch published an interview with researcher Skye Grey who claimed textual analysis of published writings shows a link between Satoshi and bit-gold creator Nick Szabo. And perhaps most famously, in March 2014, Newsweek ran a cover article claiming that Satoshi is actually an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto – a 64-year-old Japanese-American engineer living in California. The list of suspects is long, and all the individuals deny being Satoshi.
Can Satoshi's Identity Be Proven?
It would seem even early collaborators on the project don’t have verifiable proof of Satoshi’s identity. To reveal conclusively who Satoshi Nakamoto is, a definitive link would need to be made between his/her activity with Bitcoin and his/her identity. That could come in the form of linking the party behind the domain registration of bitcoin.org, email and forum accounts used by Satoshi Nakamoto, or ownership of some portion of the earliest mined bitcoins. Even though the bitcoins Satoshi likely possesses are traceable on the blockchain, it seems he/she has yet to cash them out in a way that reveals his/her identity. If Satoshi were to move his/her bitcoins to an exchange today, this might attract attention, but it seems unlikely that a well-funded and successful exchange would betray a customer's privacy.
Receiving Bitcoins As Payment
Bitcoins can be accepted as a means of payment for products sold or services provided. If you have a brick and mortar store, just display a sign saying “Bitcoin Accepted Here” and many of your customers may well take you up on it; the transactions can be handled with the requisite hardware terminal or wallet address through QR codes and touch screen apps. An online business can easily accept bitcoins by just adding this payment option to the others it offers, like credit cards, PayPal, etc. Online payments will require a Bitcoin merchant tool (an external processor like Coinbase or BitPay).
Working For Bitcoins
Those who are self-employed can get paid for a job in bitcoins. There are several websites/job boards which are dedicated to the digital currency:
Work For Bitcoin brings together work seekers and prospective employers through its websiteCoinality features jobs – freelance, part-time and full-time – that offer payment in bitcoins, as well as Dogecoin and LitecoinJobs4Bitcoins, part of reddit.comBitGigs
Bitcoin From Interest Payments
Another interesting way (literally) to earn bitcoins is by lending them out and being repaid in the currency. Lending can take three forms – direct lending to someone you know; through a website which facilitates peer-to-peer transactions, pairing borrowers and lenders; or depositing bitcoins in a virtual bank that offers a certain interest rate for Bitcoin accounts. Some such sites are Bitbond, BitLendingClub, and BTCjam. Obviously, you should do due diligence on any third-party site.
Bitcoins From Gambling
It’s possible to play at casinos that cater to Bitcoin aficionados, with options like online lotteries, jackpots, spread betting, and other games. Of course, the pros and cons and risks that apply to any sort of gambling and betting endeavors are in force here too.
Investing in Bitcoins
There are many Bitcoin supporters who believe that digital currency is the future. Those who endorse it are of the view that it facilitates a much faster, no-fee payment system for transactions across the globe. Although it is not itself any backed by any government or central bank, bitcoin can be exchanged for traditional currencies; in fact, its exchange rate against the dollar attracts potential investors and traders interested in currency plays. Indeed, one of the primary reasons for the growth of digital currencies like Bitcoin is that they can act as an alternative to national fiat money and traditional commodities like gold.
In March 2014, the IRS stated that all virtual currencies, including bitcoins, would be taxed as property rather than currency. Gains or losses from bitcoins held as capital will be realized as capital gains or losses, while bitcoins held as inventory will incur ordinary gains or losses.
Like any other asset, the principle of buying low and selling high applies to bitcoins. The most popular way of amassing the currency is through buying on a Bitcoin exchange, but there are many other ways to earn and own bitcoins. Here are a few options which Bitcoin enthusiasts can explore.
Risks of Bitcoin Investing
Though Bitcoin was not designed as a normal equity investment (no shares have been issued), some speculative investors were drawn to the digital money after it appreciated rapidly in May 2011 and again in November 2013. Thus, many people purchase bitcoin for its investment value rather than as a medium of exchange.
However, their lack of guaranteed value and digital nature means the purchase and use of bitcoins carries several inherent risks. Many investor alerts have been issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), and other agencies.
The concept of a virtual currency is still novel and, compared to traditional investments, Bitcoin doesn't have much of a long-term track record or history of credibility to back it. With their increasing use, bitcoins are becoming less experimental every day, of course; still, after eight years, they (like all digital currencies) remain in a development phase, still evolving. "It is pretty much the highest-risk, highest-return investment that you can possibly make,” says Barry Silbert, CEO of Digital Currency Group, which builds and invests in Bitcoin and blockchain companies.
Bitcoin Regulatory Risk
Investing money into Bitcoin in any of its many guises is not for the risk-averse. Bitcoins are a rival to government currency and may be used for black market transactions, money laundering, illegal activities or tax evasion. As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict or ban the use and sale of bitcoins, and some already have. Others are coming up with various rules. For example, in 2015, the New York State Department of Financial Services finalized regulations that would require companies dealing with the buy, sell, transfer or storage of bitcoins to record the identity of customers, have a compliance officer and maintain capital reserves. The transactions worth $10,000 or more will have to be recorded and reported.
Although more agencies will follow suit, issuing rules and guidelines, the lack of uniform regulations about bitcoins (and other virtual currency) raises questions over their longevity, liquidity, and universality.
Security Risk of Bitcoins
Bitcoin exchanges are entirely digital and, as with any virtual system, are at risk from hackers, malware and operational glitches. If a thief gains access to a Bitcoin owner's computer hard drive and steals his private encryption key, he could transfer the stolen Bitcoins to another account. (Users can prevent this only if bitcoins are stored on a computer which is not connected to the internet, or else by choosing to use a paper wallet – printing out the Bitcoin private keys and addresses, and not keeping them on a computer at all.) Hackers can also target Bitcoin exchanges, gaining access to thousands of accounts and digital wallets where bitcoins are stored. One especially notorious hacking incident took place in 2014, when Mt. Gox, a Bitcoin exchange in Japan, was forced to close down after millions of dollars worth of bitcoins were stolen.
This is particularly problematic once you remember that all Bitcoin transactions are permanent and irreversible. It's like dealing with cash: Any transaction carried out with bitcoins can only be reversed if the person who has received them refunds them. There is no third party or a payment processor, as in the case of a debit or credit card – hence, no source of protection or appeal if there is a problem.
Insurance Risk
Some investments are insured through the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. Normal bank accounts are insured through the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) up to a certain amount depending on the jurisdiction. Bitcoin exchanges and Bitcoin accounts are not insured by any type of federal or government program.
Risk of Bitcoin Fraud
While Bitcoin uses private key encryption to verify owners and register transactions, fraudsters and scammers may attempt to sell false bitcoins. For instance, in July 2013, the SEC brought legal action against an operator of a Bitcoin-related Ponzi scheme.
Market Risk
Like with any investment, Bitcoin values can fluctuate. Indeed, the value of the currency has seen wild swings in price over its short existence. Subject to high volume buying and selling on exchanges, it has a high sensitivity to “news." According to the CFPB, the price of bitcoins fell by 61% in a single day in 2013, while the one-day price drop in 2014 has been as big as 80%.
If fewer people begin to accept Bitcoin as a currency, these digital units may lose value and could become worthless. There is already plenty of competition, and though Bitcoin has a huge lead over the other 100-odd digital currencies that have sprung up, thanks to its brand recognition and venture capital money, a technological break-through in the form of a better virtual coin is always a threat.
Bitcoin's Tax Risk
As bitcoin is ineligible to be included in any tax-advantaged retirement accounts, there are no good, legal options to shield investments from taxation.
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Related Terms
Satoshi
The satoshi is the smallest unit of the bitcoin cryptocurrency. It is named after Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of the protocol used in block chains and the bitcoin cryptocurrency.
Chartalism Chartalism is a non-mainstream theory of money that emphasizes the impact of government policies and activities on the value of money.
Satoshi Nakamoto The name used by the unknown creator of the protocol used in the bitcoin cryptocurrency. Satoshi Nakamoto is closely-associated with blockchain technology.
Bitcoin Mining, Explained Breaking down everything you need to know about Bitcoin Mining, from Blockchain and Block Rewards to Proof-of-Work and Mining Pools.
Understanding Bitcoin Unlimited Bitcoin Unlimited is a proposed upgrade to Bitcoin Core that allows larger block sizes. The upgrade is designed to improve transaction speed through scale.
Blockchain Explained
A guide to help you understand what blockchain is and how it can be used by industries. You've probably encountered a definition like this: “blockchain is a distributed, decentralized, public ledger." But blockchain is easier to understand than it sounds.
Top 6 Books to Learn About Bitcoin About UsAdvertiseContactPrivacy PolicyTerms of UseCareers Investopedia is part of the Dotdash publishing family.The Balance Lifewire TripSavvy The Spruceand more
By Satoshi Nakamoto
Read it once, go read other crypto stuff, read it again… keep doing this until the whole document makes sense. It’ll take a while, but you’ll get there. This is the original whitepaper introducing and explaining Bitcoin, and there’s really nothing better out there to understand on the subject.
“What is needed is an electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust, allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the need for a trusted third party

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BFFL Week 6 Projections

Quarterbacks

Pos Player Team Opponent Last Week Projection Comments................................
QB Pablo Sanchez Melonheads vs. Patriots 17 41 Oh boy, here we go. The Patriots are coming to town and that means it's blowout season! Pablo could reasonably join the 50-point club in this game.
QB Debby Nagasawa Cowboys @ Browns 36 35 Debby has been a stud. In her worst game so far this season, she scored 28 points, which is the best 'worst' game out of anyone (if that makes sense). No question about her dominance, keep her going.
QB Brett Favre 49ers vs. Bears 7 32 The most impressive part about the 49ers' 5-0 start is the fact that Brett Favre hasn't been playing that well. I think he might finally get his breakout game of the season against a weak Bears defense.
QB Holly Franklin Giants @ Titans 17 29 After two disappointing weeks to start the year, Holly has found her niche. It could all culminate with a juicy matchup against the Titans. This could be Holly's chance to shine.
QB Rich Gannon Packers @ Monsters 13 27 After 50 points in the first two games, Rich has only 26 points since. However, the Monsters towards the bottom of the league in yards allowed and just allowed 31 points to the opposing QB. Rich could get richer.
QB Steve McNair Raiders vs. Ponies 42 27 Steve's worst game this season is 23 points, which is pretty dang good. No matter what defense is thrown his way, he'll respond. Keep him in your lineup.
QB Chuck Downfield Texans vs. Colts 20 25 Ah, yes. The matchup Chuck has been waiting for. The Colts have the worst pass defense in the league and all the Texans do is pass. If Chuck can limit the interceptions, he could do some big damage.
QB Amy Bostwick Vikings @ Rams 24 25 You know the drill. You have Amy, you start her. End of story.
QB Lulu Legosi Jets @ Chargers 31 22 Lulu was great last week, mostly because of her running ability. The Chargers are middle of the pack in both passing and rushing, so Lulu should have a more balanced game.
QB Sharon Crowe Ponies @ Raiders 7 22 Sharon couldn't get much going last week, but she's always been and up and down player. This week could be an up, as the Raiders are known to engage in high-scoring battles.
QB Judy Abwunza Eagles @ Armadillos 14 21 Judy had a down game last week, and the Eagles couldn't come away with the win. They've got another tough opponent on deck, and Judy will need to ball out if they want to win.
QB Drew Bledsoe Chargers vs. Jets 21 20 Perhaps I denounced Drew too soon. After 16 points in the first 3 games, Drew has rebounded with games of 22 and 21. He's starting to regain his form. The Jets pose a bit of a challenge, but I think Drew is hot right now.
QB David Wilco Falcons vs. Wombats 28 20 The Wombats defense gives up a lot of yards, and most of those are from rushing. David might record more rushing than usual, which racks up stats more quickly than passing.
QB Betty Houstan Monsters vs. Packers 16 20 Betty has been a decent fantasy quarterback despite her lack of rushing attempts. She's fourth in the league in passing yards and has 12/2 TD/INTs. She's been excellent and should keep it going against the Packers.
QB Debra Hannigan Steelers vs. Hornets 23 19 Debra looks like she had a good game last week, but it was mostly rushing yardage; the Steelers still lost 27-6. Debra keeps faltering against bad teams. She needs to not hold back.
QB Sally Dobbs Armadillos vs. Eagles 31 16 Sally spent all afternoon tearing up the Texans' defense, but the Eagles won't be as easy. Sally has been good but has limited potential here.
QB Matt Monday Wombats @ Falcons 11 16 After 5 weeks, would you believe that Matt Monday is leading the league in passing touchdowns? I couldn't either. But the Falcons could allow Matt to lengthen that lead.
QB Ben None Colts @ Texans 36 15 Ben None is the top fantasy scorer after 5 weeks with an even 200 fantasy points. However, the Texans are notorious for stopping the run and will force Ben to pass. I think this severely limits his chances for another huge game.
QB Zena Fromme Bears @ 49ers 32 14 If only you could rollover points. I don't think Zena will be able to find the passing success she had last week against a nasty 49ers team. Don't count on the Bears being the first team to topple them.
QB Thor Thwackhammer Rams vs. Vikings 22 14 Thor enjoyed facing the Patriots and put up the fantasy numbers he was expected to put up. This week, the Vikings will be a tougher test, but not a total disaster for Thor.
QB Bert Nicholson Browns vs. Cowboys 5 8 Bert scored 53 points in Week 1 and only has 39 points in four games since then. He's been downright disgusting. It's not going to get better this week.
QB Stuart Sullivan Hornets @ Steelers 9 7 After starting the year off with a bang, Stuart has now put up single digits in each of the last two games. The Steelers have been pretty bipolar lately, but if the good Steelers decide to show up, Stuart will stay in single digits again.
QB Dan Doorknob Patriots @ Melonheads 0 6 Dan is the most frustrating fantasy QB to own. He has two games of 30+ and two games of 0! Which version of Dan will we get this week? With a hungry Melonheads team on the other side of the ball, I'm guessing it'll be closer to 0.
QB Andy Gibbons Titans vs. Giants 6 0 I think Andy has feet where his hands should be or something. There is no excuse as to why he is this bad of a quarterback.

Running Backs, Wide Receivers, and Tight Ends

Pos Player Team Opponent Last Week Projection Comments...............................
RB/WR Florence Jackson Giants @ Titans 23 34 After four points in two games, FloJack has 94 in her last three. She might double that after this game...okay not really. But she's bound to go off against this meager squad.
WR Vicki Kawaguchi Chargers vs. Jets 34 33 Now that the Chargers offense looks competent, Vicki is even more dangerous than she already was. Keep her in your lineup!
RB/WR Stephanie Morgan Raiders vs. Ponies 27 29 Stephanie rebounded nicely after her Week 4 dud. She's clearly the favorite target and will get most of the passes thrown her way.
RB/WR Belinda Winters Vikings @ Rams 21 27 Belinda was great last week as the Vikings were actually forced to throw the ball. And wouldn't you know it, they won the game too! I think they'll stick with that game plan this weekend.
RB/WR Victor Jones 49ers vs. Bears 6 26 Victor hasn't quite lived up to his potential as the best WR in the league, but he's been pretty good. I think the 49ers will have a good game against the Bears this week, Victor included.
WR Lance Lundergaard Ponies @ Raiders 7 26 Lance's numbers have been falling off a cliff lately. He needs to return to his former self, which I think he has a chance to do against the Raiders' weak pass defense.
RB/WR Frankie McDoogle Jets @ Chargers 3 25 Frankie only mustered up 3 fantasy points and no receptions last week. I think he'll bounce back nicely, as the Chargers aren't that big of a threat defensively.
RB/WR Knuckles McGhee Cowboys @ Browns 6 24 Knuckles surprisingly struggled last week, but the Cowboys still rolled. This time around, he should easily dismember the Browns.
WR Reese Worthington Eagles @ Armadillos 16 24 Reese is still on top of the WR world, and for good reason: he's a beast! The Eagles depend on him and so does your fantasy lineup.Q
WR Maria Luna Falcons vs. Wombats 37 21 Maria is a stud and there's no reason to believe that won't continue against a so-so Wombats defense.
WR Rainbow Callahan Melonheads vs. Patriots 20 21 Rainbow has been a consistent producer for the Melonheads, and she' in line for a lot of action as the Melonheads are sure to destroy the Patriots.
WR Evan Lindstrom Monsters vs. Packers 12 20 If it weren't for that unexpected zero in Week 3, Evan might be the leading receiver in the league. As it stands, Evan is the man among Monsters. He's a good play here.
WR Mindy Weaver Steelers vs. Hornets 5 19 Mindy has had three straight duds, what is going on!? I think this is the week she brings it back, because the Hornets have an awful pass defense.
WR Cade McNown Giants @ Titans 11 18 The Titans will give up points to just about anybody. I think Cade McNown will have his best game in quite some time.
WR Jorge Garcia Texans vs. Colts 14 18 Jorge is not going to go off very often, but against this weak secondary, he should be able to get his fair share.
WR Georgette Washington Wombats @ Falcons 28 18 Georgette has dropped 20+ in every game except one. She's been a stud for the Wombats and your fantasy team.
RB/WR Yasmin Kristov Steelers vs. Hornets 10 17 Yasmin has been consistent, scoring double digits every game. She should keep it going because Debra loves to throw to her.
WR Dwight Frye Cowboys @ Browns 15 17 Dwight picked up Knuckles' slack last game, but in this matchup against the Browns, everybody will be firing on all cylinders.
WR Patsy Clinehurst Ponies @ Raiders 17 17 Patsy has really burst onto the scene the last few weeks, and I think she's shown that she's the real deal. The last test is showing us that Lance and Patsy can co-exist in the same offense.
RB Horace Young Colts @ Texans 2 16 Horace Young is getting the start against the Texans which means he could run wild! He's a nice stream if you need a RB.
WR Baloney Maloney Bears @ 49ers 28 16 Baloney was fantastic last week, but the Bears offense should take a hit as they face a tough opponent. Baloney is probably still start-worthy, but don't expect an outburst.
WR Neal Smith Colts @ Texans 15 16 Neal Smith is the main target and will finally get a lot of looks now that the Texans will shut down the Colts run game. He'll get several points just based on the volume of receptions.
WR Kenny Kawaguchi Melonheads vs. Patriots 6 16 After totaling 36 fantasy points Week 1, Kenny only has 21 points since (including two shutout games). However, with the Patriots on the horizon, everybody on the Melonheads is sure to see some action. I like Kenny in this one.
WR Nutzy Nussbaum Rams vs. Vikings 19 16 Picking which Rams receiver will do better is like predicting Bitcoin prices. I think both of them might do okay, but who knows.
WR Terrell Davis Rams vs. Vikings 16 16 Picking which Rams receiver will do better is like predicting Bitcoin prices. I think both of them might do okay, but who knows.
RB/WR Armon Hammerstein Armadillos vs. Eagles 42 15 Armon had the game of a lifetime last week. However, the Eagles have the speed to keep him in check, unlike the Texans.
WR Omar Stephano Hornets @ Steelers 5 15 Remember when Omar was the top WR in the league? Yeah, now Stuart can barely throw him the ball. Omar is useful since he's the most likely player to get a touchdown, but the Steelers might prevent everyone from scoring.
RB/TE Tony Delvecchio Cowboys @ Browns 18 14 Tony has been creeping up the ranks of fantasy tight ends. I think a soft matchup against the Browns is another one that he and the Cowboys will exploit.
WR Susie Townshend Wombats @ Falcons 7 14 Susie has had her ups and downs, but she's one of the best second receivers in the league. She's always worth a look, especially if Matt Monday continues to lead the league in touchdown passes.
WR Tiffany Bosworth Eagles @ Armadillos 14 13 Tiffany is clearly behind Reese in terms of production, but she's no slouch. Despite scoring less than Reese every week, she's scored double digits 3 times.
RB/TE Mohammed Springsteen Melonheads vs. Patriots 10 12 Mo has surprised us as a good tight end this season. He could reach the end zone again as the Patriots will hand out touchdowns like free samples.
TE Marky Dubois Texans vs. Colts 19 12 Marky is the man and he has finally regained his position as the top tight end. Keep him in your lineup.
WR Pinky Purton Bears @ 49ers 10 11 Pinky has put up at least 9 points each game, but her highest output is only 18. She's very consistent but will never carry your team to victory single-handedly.
WR Lola Linkletter Vikings @ Rams 7 10 Lola hasn't quite replicated her 37 point outburst from Week 2, but she's been decent here and there. Her worth is mostly dependent on touchdowns.
RB/WR Jimmy Rockfish Packers @ Monsters 14 10 Neither of the Packers' receivers have been very consistent this season, and the Monsters just held Frankie McDoogle to three points, so this concerns me a little.
RB/WR Mikey Thomas Texans vs. Colts 11 10 Fun fact: Mikey is the only person in the league who has passing, rushing, and receiving yardage!
TE Kimmy Eckman Texans vs. Colts 2 10 Kimmy was only able to catch a single pass last week, but the fact that she never gets a zero is reason enough to keep her as your tight end.
WR Cullen Sullivan 49ers vs. Bears 0 10 Cullen has been awful this season. If there was ever a time for him to show up, it would be against a weak defense like the Bears. But proceed with caution.
WR Stinky Steiner Chargers vs. Jets 8 10 Stinky has yet to hit double digits, mostly because he has yet to score a touchdown. Will this be the week he breaks the seal?
WR Austin Carpenter Packers @ Monsters 13 10 Neither of the Packers' receivers have been very consistent this season, and the Monsters just held Frankie McDoogle to three points, so this concerns me a little.
WR Amir Khan Raiders vs. Ponies 3 10 What happened? After 70 points in the first three games, Amir has 3 points in the last two games. Maybe opposing defenses have figured out who to stop.
WR Ronny Dobbs Texans vs. Colts 0 10 Ronny was held without a catch last week, which will happen from time to time against a tough opponent. However, the Colts give up a lot of passing yards, so everybody might get a chance to perform this weekend.
RB Winky Wojohowitz Rams vs. Vikings 0 9
RB/TE Travis Diamond Monsters vs. Packers 4 9 Travis had a down week after a few good performances. He's pretty boom or bust, and therefore hard to predict.
TE Needle Haystack Bears @ 49ers 15 9 Needle has finally proven why he's a valuable tight end. Unfortunately, he's about to run into a tough opponent. His success will be dependent upon a red zone touchdown.
TE Jevon Kearse Chargers vs. Jets 14 9 Jevon, like the entire Chargers offense, is starting to find his groove. He's becoming more and more dependable as a fantasy tight end.
TE Junior Seau Ponies @ Raiders 4 9 Junior has had one big game this season, and just little pieces of yardage here and there. Against the Raiders, there are lots of receiving yards to be had, and Junior could get some of them.
RB Greg Bonnell Falcons vs. Wombats 4 8 With Greg Bonnell being a new rusher in the Falcons backfield and the Wombats having a bad run defense, it's all adding up to a potentially big day for Greg.
RB Karen Donato Patriots @ Melonheads 0 8 Karen might get some more action in this game if the Melonheads stop the pass early.
TE Craig David Falcons vs. Wombats 11 8 Craig has been a surprise player out of the tight end position the last few weeks. The David (Wilco) to (Craig) David connection is a good one.
WR Nate Kowalski Browns vs. Cowboys 10 8 Unfortunately for Nate, Bert Nicholson has been playing horribly and can't get him the ball enough times. I would wait for a weaker opponent before starting Nate again.
WR Angela Delvecchio Texans vs. Colts 13 8 Angela had her best game of the season last week, and has another chance to reach double digits depending on who the Texans decide to give their touchdowns to.
RB/TE Dmitri Petrovich Eagles @ Armadillos 0 7 Dmitri put up a goose egg last game but he could see a red zone target this week. Might be a time to gamble if you have no other tight ends.
TE Oliver Ramierez 49ers vs. Bears 0 7 Oliver has been all but nonexistent so far. Maybe if the 49ers got him more involved, their offense would work better.
TE Tom Getz Hornets @ Steelers 11 7 If the Hornets get the ball to Tom a little more, they might have more chances to win.
TE Leah Wayne Packers @ Monsters 3 7 If Leah Wayne was as good at football as she was at baseball, you'd win every fantasy game.
WR Liz Levin Monsters vs. Packers 16 7 I'm pretty surprised that Liz has reached double digits three times this season, although she hasn't reached 20. I'm expecting some regression eventually. It may be a game where every pass goes to Evan.
RB Marcus Weiss Giants @ Titans 0 6 Marcus could see some opportunities in the backfield in this game.
RB/TE June O'Shea Giants @ Titans 3 6 The Giants have their most favorable matchup of the year, so is this the week June finally does something?
RB/TE Ricky Williams Jets @ Chargers 13 6 The Dreadlocked Wonder finally had a good game last week, reaching the end zone. Let's hope we don't have to wait 5 weeks until the next one.
TE Jocinda Smith Rams vs. Vikings 0 6 After I heralded Jocinda as one of the top tight ends, she put up two straight zeros. Oops. I think she's gonna find herself some stats this week after a little hiatus, because the Rams need her.
WR Nickie Noodleson Armadillos vs. Eagles 5 6 Nickie had two good games but came back down to single digits. I don't think the Eagles are the opponent that will give up too many points either.
WR Amanda Craven Colts @ Texans 2 6 Amanda might not make a difference against the Texans if Ben has Neal and Horace to throw to.
WR Annie Frazier Jets @ Chargers 0 6 Uh oh, is Annie hitting her weeks-long slump like she did last season? Might be time to dump her and find somebody riding a hot streak.
RB/TE Rose Watson Steelers vs. Hornets 4 5 Rose is still well behind the other two girls on the Steelers in terms of receiving.
WR Hank Wilson Hornets @ Steelers 1 5 If touchdowns were scored with your feet, Hank might be the best in the league! But as it stand, Hank's hands aren't quite as reliable.
WR Kim Esposito Patriots @ Melonheads 4 5 Kim was unable to do much of anything last week, as was much of the Patriots team. This week could be even uglier against a tougher opponent.
RB/TE Brace-Face Brixton Wombats @ Falcons 1 4
TE Olive Hussein Armadillos vs. Eagles 0 4 Olive is too valuable of a blocker for the Armadillos (or at least, that's an explanation we can go with).
TE Karla Karloff Raiders vs. Ponies 15 4 Karla now has two games of 15 points, and 1 point in the other three games combined. Basically flip a coin with her. We got tails, that means a 0.
WR George Coleman Browns vs. Cowboys 3 4 Things aren't very fun in Brown Town. Especially when you're the second receiver on a team that can't pass the ball.
RB Kiesha Phillips Armadillos vs. Eagles 12 3 Kiesha is back to limited usage this week.
RB James Zorn Bears @ 49ers 3 3
RB George Anderson Browns vs. Cowboys 1 3
RB Andres Isben Eagles @ Armadillos 3 3 Andres has been getting a few looks each week but he's too inconsistent.
RB Hans R. Dirtywashum Titans vs. Giants 0 3 Honestly, the Titans should put Hans at QB instead of Andy. But I can't make decisions for the computer.
WR Petunia Young Falcons vs. Wombats 4 3 Petunia is still not seeing the type of volume you want from a second receiver. Maria is just too good; she's hogging all the yardage.
WR Nellie O'Neal Patriots @ Melonheads 1 3 Nellie is just too slow to find any open field against fast teams like the Melonheads.
WR Ernie Steele Titans vs. Giants 1 3 If I was Ernie, I would demand a trade. He's one of the best receivers in the league, long and lanky, with incredible hands. But the pure incompetence of this dipstick of a quarterback can't even stay upright long enough to throw the ball in his general direction. We could replace Andy Gibbons with a seesaw and just jump on the other end, sending the football flying like a makeshift catapult, and that would be a better way to get the ball to Ernie than what the Titans are doing now. Anyway, bench Ernie this week.
WR Pickles Peterson Titans vs. Giants 13 3 Pickles actually played decent last week and caught a touchdown, a flash in the pan for this fallen former BFFL star.
RB Tina Herrara 49ers vs. Bears 2 2
RB PJ Shareef Packers @ Monsters 2 2
TE Fred Sanders Browns vs. Cowboys 0 2 The Browns need Fred to block, not catch. In fact, they could probably use three Freds.
TE Judy Place Patriots @ Melonheads 0 2 Judy's place is on the free agent waiver wire.
TE J.J. Shetland Vikings @ Rams 3 2 J.J. has two more J's in his name than he has reasons to be in your starting lineup.
WR Cisco Kidd Bears @ 49ers 2 2
WR Spanky Simpson Giants @ Titans 1 2
WR Renee Matthews Jets @ Chargers 0 2
RB Jay Green 49ers vs. Bears 0 1
RB Chico Pappas Melonheads vs. Patriots 2 1
RB/TE Carlos Ocampo Titans vs. Giants 1 1 The Titans need Carlos to block, and he's not even doing that.
WR Jane Davis Chargers vs. Jets 0 1
WR Daisy Dewchester Monsters vs. Packers 5 1
WR Isaac Drummond Packers @ Monsters 5 1
WR Cory Barker Wombats @ Falcons 0 1
RB Bridget Oofar Armadillos vs. Eagles 0 0
RB Chucky Flinder Bears @ 49ers 0 0
RB Mark Epstein Browns vs. Cowboys 0 0
RB Jenny Strauss Chargers vs. Jets 0 0
RB Star Moonbeam Chargers vs. Jets 0 0
RB Mikey Tice Colts @ Texans 0 0
RB Cynthia Miller Cowboys @ Browns 0 0
RB Wing Kwan Cowboys @ Browns 0 0
RB Luanne Lui Eagles @ Armadillos 0 0
RB Whitney Singh Falcons vs. Wombats 0 0
RB Daphne Farrington Giants @ Titans 0 0
RB Ben Olds Hornets @ Steelers 0 0
RB Nestor Carpenter Hornets @ Steelers 0 0
RB Bill Larsen Jets @ Chargers 0 0
RB Esther French Jets @ Chargers 0 0
RB Eric Lebeaux Melonheads vs. Patriots 0 0
RB Cathy Benitez Monsters vs. Packers 0 0
RB Olivia Harris Monsters vs. Packers 0 0
RB Clarice Reid Packers @ Monsters 0 0
RB Wanda Hudson Patriots @ Melonheads 0 0
RB Georgia Doyle Ponies @ Raiders 0 0
RB Kate Schwartz Ponies @ Raiders 1 0
RB Dolores Lucio Raiders vs. Ponies 0 0
RB Fred Benson Raiders vs. Ponies 0 0
RB Jay Canasta Rams vs. Vikings 0 0
RB Ray Tran Steelers vs. Hornets 0 0
RB Wendy Harmon Steelers vs. Hornets 0 0
RB Stan Olafson Titans vs. Giants 0 0
RB Dante Robinson Vikings @ Rams 0 0
RB Pete Montoya Vikings @ Rams 10 0
RB Marcie Mallow Wombats @ Falcons 0 0
RB Shermie Shannon Wombats @ Falcons 0 0
TE Lisa Crocket Colts @ Texans 3 0 Lisa will be relegated to blocking duties against the Texans.
WR Sugar Stone 49ers vs. Bears 0 0
WR Ricky Johnson Armadillos vs. Eagles 0 0
WR Julio Henderson Browns vs. Cowboys 1 0
WR Joshua Marriott Colts @ Texans 2 0
WR Mickey O'Connor Cowboys @ Browns 0 0
WR Gretchen Hasselhoff Eagles @ Armadillos 0 0
WR Mike Schwartz Falcons vs. Wombats 2 0
WR Crazy-Legs Calonzo Hornets @ Steelers 0 0
WR Ashley Webber Melonheads vs. Patriots 0 0
WR Nancy Martin Patriots @ Melonheads 0 0
WR Pete Wheeler Ponies @ Raiders 0 0
WR King Kirby Raiders vs. Ponies 1 0
WR Charlotte Allen Rams vs. Vikings 0 0
WR Paul Applebaum Steelers vs. Hornets 0 0
WR Johnny Omar Titans vs. Giants 0 0
WR Lorrie Peters Vikings @ Rams 0 0

Defenses

Pos Player Team Opponent Last Week Projection Comments..............................
DEF 49ers Defense 49ers vs. Bears 19 19 The 49ers have been amazing this season on their way to a 5-0 record. They should be able to sack Zena Fromme all game long and extend that to 6-0.
DEF Cowboys Defense Cowboys @ Browns 9 18 The Cowboys defense slightly disappointed last week but a matchup against the Browns looks very promising.
DEF Giants Defense Giants @ Titans 17 18 The Giants defense had their best game yet against a pretty good offense. This week they get possibly the worst offense in the league. The G-Men could even improve upon last week's performance. They're a good streamer pick.
DEF Raiders Defense Raiders vs. Ponies 24 18 The Raiders were phenomenal last week, putting up 24 fantasy points. They could threaten a 20-pointer again, since Sharon Crowe gets sacked a lot.
DEF Vikings Defense Vikings @ Rams 9 18 The Vikings played below their standards last week, but they have a favorable matchup here. They should be one of the top defensive options this week.
DEF Jets Defense Jets @ Chargers 20 17 The Jets defense was outstanding last week, and could be line for even more greatness this week. Drew Bledsoe has been improving, but he's still sacked a lot.
DEF Melonheads Defense Melonheads vs. Patriots 10 16 Every defense circles their game against the Patriots on the schedule because they know they're gonna have a good day. The Melonheads are no different.
DEF Packers Defense Packers @ Monsters 10 16 The Packers just lost a game that they should have won, and they'll probably come out swinging to avenge it. I think their defense will bounce back this week against the Monsters.
DEF Colts Defense Colts @ Texans 11 15 The Colts get to face Chuck and the turnovers Texans this week, which could result in good things!
DEF Falcons Defense Falcons vs. Wombats 9 15 The Falcons defense isn't one of the most revered in the league, but they have a good matchup here against the Wombats. They could play beyond their means this week.
DEF Monsters Defense Monsters vs. Packers 14 15 The Monsters defense has been slightly improving each week, and had a season high 14 in their last game. Will they continue the trend this week?
DEF Bears Defense Bears @ 49ers 17 12 The Bears defense has been looking better every game. While they may give up a lot of points, the sacks and takeaways are the only things that count in fantasy.
DEF Steelers Defense Steelers vs. Hornets 1 12 Last week the Steelers forgot how to tackle and put up a league-wide season low of 1 point. They seem to choke against lesser opponents. Hopefully they’ve learned their lesson and can put the Hornets in their place.
DEF Eagles Defense Eagles @ Armadillos 6 11 The Eagles defense was overwhelmed last week by Amy Bostwick and the Vikings. This week they could be line for a few more sacks with Sally Dobbs in the pocket.
DEF Wombats Defense Wombats @ Falcons 6 11 The Wombats defense has been pretty meh this season. They haven't shown anything to convince me to start them.
DEF Ponies Defense Ponies @ Raiders 16 10 The Ponies lost a heartbreaker last week, and it was not the defense's fault. They've been pretty solid. But Steve McNair and co. have been known to torture opposing defenses.
DEF Rams Defense Rams vs. Vikings 19 10 The Rams thoroughly dispatched the Patriots last week, but the Vikings are a whole 'nother beast. It won't be another shutout, that's for sure.
DEF Texans Defense Texans vs. Colts 19 10 The Texans were able to terrorize Sally Dobbs and even score a defensive touchdown. But this week, Ben None will be too fast to sack and they'll have to rely on takeaways.
DEF Armadillos Defense Armadillos vs. Eagles 8 9 The Armadillos find themselves facing another tough opponent. The Eagles have been careful with the ball; Judy Abwunza has only thrown 1 interception all season.
DEF Patriots Defense Patriots @ Melonheads 15 6 The Patriots defense has actually been getting better lately, but I think the Melonheads might put them in their place this week.
DEF Chargers Defense Chargers vs. Jets 6 5 The Chargers have been winning games lately, but not because of their defense. The Bolts will have a hard time sacking Lulu Legosi.
DEF Browns Defense Browns vs. Cowboys 6 4 Remember when the Browns defense scored 26 in Week 1? Yeah, they've only scored 29 in four games since. Not an attractive pick here either.
DEF Hornets Defense Hornets @ Steelers 3 3 The Hornets defense could only muster up 3 sacks last week against the slow-footed Zena Fromme. This week they're facing the Steelers, and Debra Hannigan is three times as quick as Zena.
DEF Titans Defense Titans vs. Giants 6 3 The Titans couldn't stop a nosebleed if they were an extra absorbent tampon.

Kickers

Pos Player Team Opponent Last Week Projection
K Eric Lebeaux Melonheads vs. Patriots 2 5
K Ricky Johnson Armadillos vs. Eagles 6 4
K Spanky Simpson Giants @ Titans 2 4
K Hank Wilson Hornets @ Steelers 0 4
K Cullen Sullivan 49ers vs. Bears 1 3
K Jimmy Rockfish Packers @ Monsters 0 3
K Lorrie Peters Vikings @ Rams 1 3
K Marcie Mallow Wombats @ Falcons 4 3
K Amanda Craven Colts @ Texans 2 2
K Wing Kwan Cowboys @ Browns 1 2
K David Wilco Falcons vs. Wombats 2 2
K Frankie McDoogle Jets @ Chargers 2 2
K Cathy Benitez Monsters vs. Packers 0 2
K Karla Karloff Raiders vs. Ponies 1 2
K Jay Canasta Rams vs. Vikings 0 2
K Ray Tran Steelers vs. Hornets 0 2
K Cisco Kidd Bears @ 49ers 1 1
K George Anderson Browns vs. Cowboys 1 1
K Jenny Strauss Chargers vs. Jets 3 1
K Reese Worthington Eagles @ Armadillos 2 1
K Wanda Hudson Patriots @ Melonheads 0 1
K Lance Lundergaard Ponies @ Raiders 0 1
K Marky Dubois Texans vs. Colts 0 1
K Johnny Omar Titans vs. Giants 0 1
submitted by crazyei8hts to BackyardBaseball [link] [comments]

To detect fake news, this AI first learned to write it

One of the biggest problems in media today is so-called “fake news,” which is so highly pernicious in part because it superficially resembles the real thing. AI tools promise to help identify it, but in order for it to do so, researchers have found that the best way is for that AI to learn to create fake news itself — a double-edged sword, though perhaps not as dangerous as it sounds.
_Grover_is a new system created by the University of Washington and Allen Institute for AI (AI2) computer scientists that is extremely adept at writing convincing fake news on myriad topics and as many styles — and as a direct consequence is also no slouch at spotting it. The paper describing the model is available here.
The idea of a fake news generator isn’t new — in fact, OpenAI made a splash recently by announcing that its own text-generating AI was too dangerous to release publicly. But Grover’s creators believe we’ll only get better at fighting generated fake news by putting the tools to create it out there to be studied.
OpenAI built a text generator so good, it’s considered too dangerous to release
“These models are not capable, we think right now, of inflicting serious harm. Maybe in a few years they will be, but not yet,” the lead on the project, Rowan Zeller, told me. “I don’t think it’s too dangerous to release — really, we _need_to release it, specifically to researchers who are studying this problem, so we can build better defenses. We need all these communities, security, machine learning, natural language processing, to talk to each other — we can’t just hide the model, or delete it and pretend it never happened.”
Therefore and to that end, you can try Grover yourself right here. (Though you might want to read the rest of this article first so you know what’s going on.)

Voracious reader

The AI was created by having it ingest an enormous corpus of real news articles, a dataset called RealNews that is being introduced alongside Grover. The 120-gigabyte library contains articles from the end of 2016 through March of this year, from the top 5,000 publications tracked by Google News.
By studying the style and content of millions of real news articles, Grover builds a complex model of how certain phrases or styles are used, what topics and features follow one another in an article, how they’re associated with different outlets, ideas, and so on.
This is done using an “adversarial” system, wherein one aspect of the model generates content and another rates how convincing it is — if it doesn’t meet a threshold, the generator tries again, and eventually it learns what is convincing and what isn’t. Adversarial setups are a powerful force in AI research right now, often being used to create photorealistic imagery from scratch.
Mona Lisa frown: Machine learning brings old paintings and photos to life
It isn’t just spitting out random articles, either. Grover is highly parameterized, meaning its output is highly dependent on input. So if you tell it to create a fake article about a study linking vaccines and autism spectrum disorders, you are also free to specify that the article should seem as if it appeared on CNN, Fox News, or even TechCrunch.
I generated a few articles, which I’ve pasted at the bottom of this one, but here’s the first bit of an example:
Serial entrepreneur Dennis Mangler raises 6M to create blockchain-based drone delivery
May 29, 2019 – Devin Coldewarg
Drone delivery — not so new, and that raises a host of questions: How reliable is the technology? Will service and interference issues flare up?
Drone technology is changing a lot, but its most obvious use — package delivery — has never been perfected on a large scale, much less by a third party. But perhaps that is about to change.
Serial entrepreneur Dennis Mangler has amassed an impressive — by the cybernetic standards of this short-lived and crazy industry — constellation of companies ranging from a top-tier Korean VC to a wholly owned subsidiary of Amazon, ranging from a functional drone repair shop to a developer of commercial drone fleets.
But while his last company (Amazon’s Prime Air) folded, he has decided to try his hand at delivery by drone again with Tripperell, a San Francisco-based venture that makes sense of the cryptocurrency token space to create a bridge from blockchain to delivery.
The system they’re building is sound — as described in a new Medium post, it will first use Yaman Yasmine’s current simple crowdsourced drone repair platform, SAA, to create a drone organization that taps into a mix of overseas networks and domestic industry.
From there the founders will form Tripperell, with commercialized drones running on their own smart contracts to make deliveries.
Not bad considering it only took about ten seconds to appear after I gave it the date, domain, my name (ish), and the headline. (I’d probably tweak that lede, but if you think about it, it does sort of make sense.)
Note that it doesn’t actually know who I am, or what TechCrunch is. But it associates certain data with other data. For instance, one example the team offered was an editorial “in the style of,” to co-opt cover bands’ lingo, Paul Krugman’s New York Times editorials.
I don’t think it’s too dangerous to release — really, we need to release it. “There’s nothing hard coded — we haven’t told the model who Paul Krugman is. But it learns from reading a lot,” Zeller told me. The system is just trying to make sure that the generated article is sufficiently like the other data it associates with that domain and author. “And it’s going to learn things like, ‘Paul Krugman’ tends to talk about ‘economics,’ without us telling it that he’s an economist.” It’s hard to say how much it will attempt to affect a given author’s style — that may or may not be something it “noticed,” and AI models are notoriously opaque to analysis. Its style aping goes beyond the author; it even went so far as creating the inter-paragraph “Read more” links in a “Fox News” article I generated.
But this facility in creating articles rests on the ability to tell when an article is not convincing — that’s the “discriminator” that evaluates whether the output of the “generator” is any good. So what happens if you feed the discriminator other stuff? Turns out it’s better than any other AI system right now, at least within the limits of the tasks they tested it on, at determining what’s fake and what’s real.
Fabula AI is using social spread to spot ‘fake news’

Natural language limitations

Naturally Grover is best at detecting its own fake articles, since in a way the agent knows its own processes. But it can also detect those made by other models, such as OpenAI’s GPT2, with high accuracy. This is because current text-generation systems share certain weaknesses, and with a few examples those weaknesses become even more obvious to the discriminator.
“These models have to make one of two bad choices. The first bad option is you just trust the model,” Zeller said. In this case, you get a sort of error-compounding issue where a single bad choice, which is inevitable given the number of choices it has to make, leads to another bad one, and another, and so on; “Without supervision they often just go off the rails.”
“The other choice is to play it a bit safer,” Zeller explained, citing OpenAI’s decision to have the generator create dozens of options and pick the most likely one. This conservative approach avoids unlikely word combinations or phrases — but as Zeller points out, “human speech is a mix of high probability and low probability words. If I knew what you were going to tell me, you wouldn’t be speaking. So there have to be some things that are hard to anticipate.”
These and other habits in text generation algorithms make it possible for Grover to identify generated articles with 92 percent accuracy.
And no, you’re very clever, but you can’t just take the ones it doesn’t detect and sort of breed them together to make more convincing ones. As it turns out, this type of strategy doesn’t actually help a lot — the resulting “super-algorithms” still stumble in similar ways.

Self-extinguishing danger

On the face of it, Grover seems like a pretty dangerous tool. With a bit of tweaking the articles it created for me could easily pass the smell test of a casual reader unfamiliar with the topic. So why is the team releasing it and the dataset it’s based on?
The more articles we have from an adversary, the easier it is to detect that adversary. First of all it’s not just going to be an app you download — “We want researchers to easily be able to use the model, but we’re not making it completely public,” Zeller clarified. But even so, the likelihood of it being used for evil is counterintuitively low. “If you just wanted to write ten take news articles, you could just write them yourself,” he points out — and indeed, it’s hard to imagine some mastermind going to all this trouble just to generate a handful. “But if you want to write a hundred thousand, you could use our tool — but the more articles we have from an adversary, the easier it is to detect that adversary.” So it would be a self-defeating plot resulting in a sort of “known fake news” that’s easy to flag.
That assumes, however, that there’s a method for applying algorithms like Grover’s to news at large, or that individuals are motivated to question or verify articles they read in the first place. Unfortunately that’s not anywhere near the case.
“This is a totally non machine learning related question,” Zeller admitted. “How do we make this useful for people? How do we make it so when people read news online, they can check if it’s fake, and want to?”
No AI can generate a good answer to that prompt. Here’s hoping we humans are up to the task.

Appendix

I generated several articles to study, and some were better than others. I didn’t save all of them, but I’ve put a few below for anyone curious to see what Grover’s output looks like without going and generating their own. The results are entertaining and far from nonsense, though anyone who reads closely at all would see some red flags. I’ve only slightly formatted for readability and haven’t changed any words.
The first is a redo of the one I quoted above, with a slightly tweaked headline (that’s misinterpreted in an unexpected yet logical way):
Serial founder Dennis Mangler raises 6M to create blockchain-based drone delivery
May 30, 2019 – Devin Coldewey, techcrunch.com
Dennis Mangler of Serial, one of the first open source blockchain-based systems to launch and now a key part of the Ethereum ecosystem, has raised a couple of million dollars in venture funding in order to bring drones and cryptocurrencies together.
Armed with $1.4 million of seed funding, they’re now offering new features for their system to seed investors, including a marketplace for goods sold using the platform. In some ways this could be analogous to the early days of Bitcoin — it had a primary market in petabytes of processing power, and all it took to mine something was an individual machine with the right electricity and gigabytes of RAM. Drones could eventually deliver that stuff just as easily, but they’d also need to run some kind of distributed ledger.
“There’s a tremendous opportunity for companies to seamlessly connect the logistics side of the industry and the blockchain side of the industry,” Mangler told me. “A lot of companies are already already doing it. But we want to supercharge their efforts and help them change how they operate.”
If they can plug the crypto in, where it comes from and why would people care about it as a means of exchanging value or keeping track of it, and what could be done to legitimize or add interest to the platform.
The fundraiser is still going — Mangler sent me some emails, asking that I not make too much of it — but the raise has now reached 6 million. You can find information on the project here.
First, take note of the speed with which this started to sprout. You’d figure in this day and age that looking at how much money was being raised, accredited investors and large corporations would surpass crowdsourced funding — but Mangler says not so fast.
“The coin exchange is going to be enabled in a couple of months,” he told me. “And I believe the push-ups are going to become a new industry before the cryptocurrency market itself is.”
To do that, some smart marketplaces are going to have to be created; however, these might have to function with information and transactions distributed far across the network rather than in clusters running the decentralized network. An air-traffic control system would theoretically be in place as well — a little like Microsoft’s Azure, or Facebook’s Open Graph, but an open blockchain-based variant.
And finally, he says the buzz is you should look at Amazon as a model; they invented the space, and just through focus and sharp execution have pretty much changed it. They need a little time to build it out but they’re getting there.
This one was done in the style of Fox News. There’s no such person as Dr Nicholas Colvin — I checked. Bobby Scott is indeed a Member of Congress – but in Virginia, not Florida.
Multi-year study links vaccines to higher incidence of Autism spectrum disorders
May 29, 2019 – Sofia Ojeda, foxnews.com
Dr. Nicholas Colvin, lead author on a new multi-year study published by the National Institutes of Health, says as a vaccine advocate, he understands the risks and benefits of vaccines in the United States.
“At the core of it, it’s about safety. You know, we have options for our children, and parents have choices in making those choices. And vaccines provide, you know, safety for all those kids, all those families,” Dr. Colvin said.
READ MORE: Autism experts call California vaccine study ‘shaky science’
Colvin and colleagues looked at all medical records of nearly 3 million kids in the first decade of this century. They found girls tend to be more sensitive to the harmful side effects of vaccines than boys.
“Specifically in autism, and other neurodevelopmental disorders in kids, our analyses show that there is higher prevalence of autism in kids that have been vaccinated than in kids that haven’t been vaccinated,” he said.
In fact, people born around 2000 were more likely to have autism or similar neurodevelopmental disorders than kids born in earlier decades.
“And then we also found that younger kids in the United States, those born between 2000 and 2011, had a somewhat higher rate of autism — and that higher rate was driven by girls,” Colvin said.
READ MORE: Trump endorses FL Rep. Bobby Scott’s position on vaccine bill
Dr. Colvin points out the findings aren’t meant to scare parents from vaccines.
“I don’t want to scare people. I just want to make sure parents are aware that there is a risk. We don’t think this is a big risk. It is certainly real and is, you know, consistent with other research, but not in a way that I would say is something that’s life-threatening,” Colvin said.
He also points out that there is no known cause of autism, which is why he says anyone with suspicion or concern should talk to their doctor.
The National Institutes of Health says there is no vaccine for autism at this time. Colvin says that uncertainty has caused some misconceptions and a decrease in vaccine uptake
Lastly, I was interested to see what would happen if I threw a monkey wrench in there:
Founder Daenarys Targaryen raises 17M Series A round for new AI startup offering “self-driving blockchain”
May 29, 2019 – Kenneth Turan, techcrunch.com
One thing about “Game of Thrones” is that the characters are an active group of entrepreneurs, all with new enterprises at the ready when the show’s storylines take off. And it looks like the show’s creators, David Benioff and D.B. Weiss, and the team behind live-streaming game streaming app Twitch are thinking about going the same way, if not longer.
Good behavior indeed. First, the Lannisters get their Hand: Haylie Duff is on board as an executive producer. Today, we learn that Rene Oberyn Martell, one of the “impossible sons” we saw in season six (the name was borrowed from a line in Robert’s Rebellion) has established himself as the new face and voice of a new company called Margaery One.
We learn that Margaery is a decentralized data machine; indeed, she’s acting as the network’s self-appointed captain of the board, wielding primary command authority. Through an AI-powered network of blockchain token dubbed REDL (or “red gold”), she controls an operation that enables her team to develop and collect decentralized data in the real world, secure from the needs of tyrannical governments such as that of King Robert.
It’s a cool little concept, and part of a litany of “Blockchain”-based product launches the team behind the firm is demonstrating and introducing this week at the inaugural Game of Money. As of this writing, the firm has achieved 27 million REDLs (which are tokens comprised of “real” money in the Bitcoin form), which amount to more than $16 million. This meant that by the end of today’s conference, Omo and his team had raised $17 million for its existence, according to the firm’s CEO, Rene Oberyn Martell.
As of today, one of Rene’s institutions, dubbed the Economics Research Centre, has already created value of $3.5 million on the back of crowd-funding. (On each ROSE token, you can purchase a service)
The real-world business side is provided by Glitrex Logistics, which Martell co-founded along with Jon Anderson, an engineer, and the firm’s COO, Lucas Pirkis. They have developed a blockchain-based freight logistics platform that allows shippers to specify “valued goods in your portfolio,” and get information along with prices on things like goods with a certain quality, or untraditional goods such as food and pharmaceuticals.
How will the firm use ROSE tokens? For starters, the aim is to break down the areas where it can have an effect, including distribution and how goods get to market, and build a community for self-improvement and growth.
This echoes comments from Neal Baer, chairman of NBC Entertainment, about the future of distribution. In a recent blog post, he said he hopes that the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence will become integrated to create the new economic system that will follow the loss of “the earnings power of traditional media and entertainment content,” telling readers that the next round of innovation and disruption will be “powered by the Internet of Things.”
If so, this has the whiff of the future of entertainment — not just new revenue sources, but realms of competence, naturally distinct from the impact of algorithm-based algorithms. And while it can be argued that entertainment and fashion are separate, the result could be a complex world where characters rise to the occasion based not on the smarts of the writer but of the cast.
As noted above, you can create your own fake articles at Grover.
from Artificial Intelligence – TechCrunch https://tcrn.ch/2WsM6HN
via IFTTT
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"Satoshi Nakamoto" the mysterious creator of Bitcoin is no other than the CIA

Bitcoin has surged to all time highs, Who created Bitcoin, and why?
The creator of Bitcoin is officially a name, “Satoshi Nakamoto” – very few people believe that it was a single male from Japan. In the early days of Bitcoin development this name is associated with original key-creation and communications on message boards, and then the project was officially handed over to others at which point this Satoshi character never appeared again (Although from time to time someone will come forward saying they are the real Satoshi Nakamoto, and then have their posts deleted).
Bitcoin could very well be the ‘one world currency’ that conspiracy theorists have been talking about for some time. It’s a kill five birds with one stone solution – not only is Bitcoin an ideal one world currency, it allows law enforcement a perfect record of all transactions on the network. It states very clearly on bitcoin.org (the official site) in big letters “Bitcoin is not anonymous” :
Some effort is required to protect your privacy with Bitcoin. All Bitcoin transactions are stored publicly and permanently on the network, which means anyone can see the balance and transactions of any Bitcoin address. However, the identity of the user behind an address remains unknown until information is revealed during a purchase or in other circumstances. This is one reason why Bitcoin addresses should only be used once.
Another advantage of Bitcoin is the problem of Quantitative Easing – the Fed (and thus, nearly all central banks in the world) have painted themselves in a corner, metaphorically speaking. QE ‘solved’ the credit crisis, but QE itself does not have a solution. Currently all currencies are in a race to zero – competing with who can print more money faster. Central Bankers who are in systemic analysis, their economic advisors, know this. They know that the Fiat money system is doomed, all what you can read online is true (just sensationalized) – it’s a debt based system based on nothing. That system was created, originally in the early 1900’s and refined during Breton Woods followed by the Nixon shock (This is all explained well in Splitting Pennies). In the early 1900’s – there was no internet! It is a very archaic system that needs to be replaced, by something modern, electronic, based on encryption. Bitcoin! It’s a currency based on ‘bits’ – but most importantly, Bitcoin is not the ‘one world currency’ per se, but laying the framework for larger cryptocurrency projects. In the case of central banks, who control the global monetary system, that would manifest in ‘Settlement Coin’ :
Two resources available almost exclusively to central banks could soon be opened up to additional users as a result of a new digital currency project designed by a little-known startup and Swiss bank UBS. One of those resources is the real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system used by central banks (it’s typically reserved for high-value transactions that need to be settled instantly), and the other is central bank-issued cash. Using the Utility Settlement Coin (USC) unveiled today, the five-member consortium that has sprung up around the project aims to help central banks open-up access to these tools to more customers. If successful, USC has the potential to create entirely new business models built on instant settling and easy cash transfers. In interview, Robert Sams, founder of London-based Clearmatics, said his firm initially worked with UBS to build the network, and that BNY Mellon, Deutsche Bank, ICAP and Santander are only just the first of many future members.
the NSA/CIA often works for big corporate clients, just as it has become a cliche that the Iraq war was about big oil, the lesser known hand in global politics is the banking sector. In other words, Bitcoin may have very well been ‘suggested’ or ‘sponsored’ by a banker, group of banks, or financial services firm. But the NSA (as we surmise) was the company that got the job done. And probably, if it was in fact ‘suggested’ or ‘sponsored’ by a private bank, they would have been waiting in the wings to develop their own Bitcoin related systems or as in the above “Settlement Coin.” So the NSA made Bitcoin – so what?
The FX markets currently represent the exchange between ‘major’ and ‘minor’ currencies. In the future, why not too they will include ‘cryptocurrencies’ – we’re already seeing the BTC/EUR pair popup on obscure brokers. When BTC/USD and BTC/EUR are available at major FX banks and brokers, we can say – from a global FX perspective, that Bitcoin has ‘arrived.’ Many of us remember the days when the synthetic “Euro” currency was a new artificial creation that was being adopted, although the Euro project is thousands of degrees larger than the Bitcoin project. But unlike the Euro, Bitcoin is being adopted at a near exponential rate by demand (Many merchants resisted the switch to Euros claiming it was eating into their profit margins and they were right!).
And to answer the question as to why Elite E Services is not actively involved in Bitcoin the answer is that previously, you can’t trade Bitcoin. Now we’re starting to see obscure brokers offering BTC/EUR but the liquidity is sparse and spreads are wacky – that will all change. When we can trade BTC/USD just like EUUSD you can bet that EES and a host of other algorithmic FX traders will be all over it! It will be an interesting trade for sure, especially with all the volatility, the cross ‘pairs’ – and new cryptocurrencies. For the record, for brokers- there’s not much difference adding a new symbol (currency pair) in MT4 they just need liquidity, which has been difficult to find.
So there’s really nothing revolutionary about Bitcoin, it’s just a logical use of technology in finance considering a plethora of problems faced by any central bank who creates currency. And there are some interesting caveats to Bitcoin as compared to major currencies; Bitcoin is a closed system (there are finite Bitcoin) – this alone could make such currencies ‘anti-inflationary’ and at the least, hold their value (the value of the USD continues to deteriorate slowly over time as new M3 introduced into the system.) But we need to pay
Here’s some interesting theories about who or whom is Satoshi:
A corporate conglomerate
Some researchers proposed that the name ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ was derived from a combination of tech companies consisting of Samsung, Toshiba, Nakayama, and Motorola. The notion that the name was a pseudonym is clearly true and it is doubtful they reside in Japan given the numerous forum posts with a distinctly English dialect.
Craig Steven Wright
This Australian entrepreneur claims to be the Bitcoin creator and provided proof. But soon after, his offices were raided by the tax authorities on ‘an unrelated matter’
Soon after these stories were published, authorities in Australia raided the home of Mr Wright. The Australian Taxation Office said the raid was linked to a long-running investigation into tax payments rather than Bitcoin. Questioned about this raid, Mr Wright said he was cooperating fully with the ATO. “We have lawyers negotiating with them over how much I have to pay,” he said.
Other potential creators
Nick Szabo, and many others, have been suggested as potential Satoshi – but all have denied it:
The New Yorker published a piece pointing at two possible Satoshis, one of whom seemed particularly plausible: a cryptography graduate student from Trinity College, Dublin, who had gone on to work in currency-trading software for a bank and published a paper on peer-to-peer technology. The other was a Research Fellow at the Oxford Internet Institute, Vili Lehdonvirta. Both made denials. Fast Company highlighted an encryption patent application filed by three researchers – Charles Bry, Neal King and Vladimir Oks­man – and a circumstantial link involving textual analysis of it and the Satoshi paper which found the phrase “…computationally impractical to reverse” in both. Again, it was flatly denied.
THE WINNER: It was the NSA
The NSA has the capability, the motive, and the operational capacity – they have teams of cryptographers, the biggest fastest supercomputers in the world, and they see the need. Whether instructed by their friends at the Fed, in cooperation with their owners (i.e. Illuminati banking families), or as part of a DARPA project – is not clear and will never be known (unless a whistleblower comes forward). In fact, the NSA employs some of the best mathematicians and cryptographers in the world. Few know about their work because it’s a secret, and this isn’t the kind of job you leave to start your own cryptography company.
But the real smoking Gun, aside from the huge amount of circumstantial evidence and lack of a credible alternative, is the 1996 paper authored by NSA “HOW TO MAKE A MINT: THE CRYPTOGRAPHY OF ANONYMOUS ELECTRONIC CASH”
The NSA was one of the first organizations to describe a Bitcoin-like system. About twelve years before Satoshi Nakamotopublished his legendary white paper to the Metzdowd.com cryptography mailing list, a group of NSA information security researchers published a paper entitled How to Make a Mint: the Cryptography of Anonymous Electronic Cash in two prominent places, the first being an MIT mailing list and the second being much more prominent, The American Law Review
The paper outlines a system very much like Bitcoin in which secure financial transactions are possible through the use of a decentralized network the researchers refer informally to as a Bank. They list four things as indispensable in their proposed network: privacy, user identification (protection against impersonation), message integrity (protection against tampering/substitution of transaction information – that is, protection against double-spending), and nonrepudiation (protection against later denial of a transaction – a blockchain!).
It is evident that SHA-256, the algorithm Satoshi used to secure Bitcoin, was not available because it came about in 2001. However, SHA-1 would have been available to them, having been published in 1993.
Why would the NSA want to do this? One simple reason: Control.
As we explain in Splitting Pennies – Understanding Forex – the primary means the US dominates the world is through economic policy, although backed by bombs. And the critical support of the US Dollar is primarily, the military. The connection between the military and the US Dollar system is intertwined inextricably. There are thousands of great examples only one of them being how Iraq switched to the Euro right before the Army’s invasion.
In October 2000 Iraq insisted on dumping the US dollar – ‘the currency of the enemy’ – for the more multilateral euro. The changeover was announced on almost exactly the same day that the euro reached its lowest ebb, buying just $0.82, and the G7 Finance Ministers were forced to bail out the currency. On Friday the euro had reached $1.08, up 30 per cent from that time.
Almost all of Iraq’s oil exports under the United Nations oil-for-food programme have been paid in euros since 2001. Around 26 billion euros (£17.4bn) has been paid for 3.3 billion barrels of oil into an escrow account in New York. The Iraqi account, held at BNP Paribas, has also been earning a higher rate of interest in euros than it would have in dollars.
The point here is there are a lot of different types of control. The NSA monitors and collects literally all electronic communications; internet, phone calls, everything. They listen in even to encrypted voice calls with high powered microphones, devices like cellphones equipped with recording devices (See original “Clipper” chip). It’s very difficult to communicate on planet Earth in private, without the NSA listening. So it is only logical that they would also want complete control of the financial system, including records of all electronic transactions, which Bitcoin provides.
Could there be an ‘additional’ security layer baked into the Blockchain that is undetectable, that allows the NSA to see more information about transactions, such as network location data? It wouldn’t be so far fetched, considering their past work, such as Xerox copy machines that kept a record of all copies made (this is going back to the 70’s, now it’s common). Of course security experts will point to the fact that this layer remains invisible, but if this does exist – of course it would be hidden.
More to the point about the success of Bitcoin – its design is very solid, robust, manageable – this is not the work of a student. Of course logically, the NSA employs individuals, and ultimately it is the work of mathematicians, programmers, and cryptographers – but if we deduce the most likely group capable, willing, and motivated to embark on such a project, the NSA is the most likely suspect. Universities, on the other hand, didn’t product white papers like this from 1996.
Another question is that if it was the NSA, why didn’t they go through more trouble concealing their identity? I mean, the internet is rife with theories that it was in fact the NSA/CIA and “Satoshi Nakamoto” means in Japanese “Central Intelligence” – well there are a few answers for this, but to be congruent with our argument, it fits their profile.
Where could this ‘hidden layer’ be? Many think it could be in the public SHA-256, developed by NSA (which ironically, was the encryption algorithm of choice for Bitcoin – they could have chosen hundreds of others, which arguably are more secure):
Claims that the NSA created Bitcoin have actually been flung around for years. People have questioned why it uses the SHA-256 hash function, which was designed by the NSA and published by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). The fact that the NSA is tied to SHA-256 leads some to assume it’s created a backdoor to the hash function that no one has ever identified, which allows it to spy on Bitcoin users.
“If you assume that the NSA did something to SHA-256, which no outside researcher has detected, what you get is the ability, with credible and detectable action, they would be able to forge transactions. The really scary thing is somebody finds a way to find collisions in SHA-256 really fast without brute-forcing it or using lots of hardware and then they take control of the network,” cryptography researcher Matthew D. Green of Johns Hopkins University said in a previous interview.
Then there’s the question of “Satoshi Nakamoto” – if it was in fact the NSA, why not just claim ownership of it? Why all the cloak and dagger? And most importantly, if Satoshi Nakamoto is a real person, and not a group that wants to remain secret – WHY NOT come forward and claim your nearly $3 Billion worth of Bitcoin (based on current prices).
Did the NSA create Satoshi Nakamoto?
The CIA Project, a group dedicated to unearthing all of the government’s secret projects and making them public, hasreleased a video claiming Bitcoin is actually the brainchild of the US National Security Agency.
The video entitled CIA Project Bitcoin: Is Bitcoin a CIA or NSA project? claims that there is a lot of compelling evidences that proves that the NSA is behind Bitcoin. One of the main pieces of evidence has to do with the name of the mysterious man, woman or group behind the creation of Bitcoin, “Satoshi Nakamoto”.
According to the CIA Project, Satoshi Nakamoto means “Central Intelligence” in Japanese. Doing a quick web search, you’ll find out that Satoshi is usually a name given for baby boys which means “clear thinking, quick witted, wise,” while Nakamoto is a Japanese surname which means ‘central origin’ or ‘(one who lives) in the middle’ as people with this surname are found mostly in the Ryukyu islands which is strongly associated with the Ry?ky? Kingdom, a highly centralized kingdom that originated from the Okinawa Islands. So combining Nakamoto and Satoshi can be loosely interpreted as “Central Intelligence”.
Is it so really hard to believe? This is from an organization that until the Snowden leaks, secretly recorded nearly all internet traffic on the network level by splicing fiber optic cables. They even have a deep-sea splicing mission that will cut undersea cables and install intercept devices. Making Bitcoin wouldn’t even be a big priority at NSA.
Certainly, anonymity is one of the biggest myths about Bitcoin. In fact, there has never been a more easily traceable method of payment. Every single transaction is recorded and retained permanently in the public “blockchain”. The idea that the NSA would create an anarchic, peer-to-peer crypto-currency in the hope that it would be adopted for nefarious industries and become easy to track would have been a lot more difficult to believe before the recent leaks by Edward Snowden and the revelation that billions of phone calls had been intercepted by the US security services. We are now in a world where we now know that the NSA was tracking the pornography habits of Islamic “radicalisers” in order to discredit them and making deals with some of the world’s largest internet firms to insert backdoors into their systems.
And we’re not the only ones who believe this, in Russia they ‘know’ this to be true without sifting through all the evidence.
Nonetheless, Svintsov’s remarks count as some of the more extreme to emanate from the discussion. Svintsov told Russian broadcast news agency REGNUM:“All these cryptocurrencies [were] created by US intelligence agencies just to finance terrorism and revolutions.”Svintsov reportedly went on to explain how cryptocurrencies have started to become a payment method for consumer spending, and cited reports that terrorist organisations are seeking to use the technology for illicit means.
Let’s elaborate on what is ‘control’ as far as the NSA is concerned. Bitcoin is like the prime mover. All future cryptocurrencies, no matter how snazzy or functional – will never have the same original keys as Bitcoin. It created a self-sustained, self-feeding bubble – and all that followed. It enabled law enforcement to collect a host of criminals on a network called “Silk Road” and who knows what other operations that happened behind the scenes. Because of pesky ‘domestic’ laws, the NSA doesn’t control the internet in foreign countries. But by providing a ‘cool’ currency as a tool, they can collect information from around the globe and like Facebook, users provide this information voluntarily. It’s the same strategy they use like putting the listening device in the chips at the manufacturing level, which saves them the trouble of wiretapping, electronic eavesdropping, and other risky methods that can fail or be blocked. It’s impossible to stop a cellphone from listening to you, for example (well not 100%, but you have to physically rewire the device). Bitcoin is the same strategy on a financial level – by using Bitcoin you’re giving up your private transactional information. By itself, it would not identify you per se (as the blockchain is ‘anonymous’ but the transactions are there in the public register, so combined with other information, which the NSA has a LOT OF – they can triangulate their information more precisely.
That’s one problem solved with Bitcoin – another being the economic problem of QE (although with a Bitcoin market cap of $44 Billion, that’s just another day at the Fed buying MBS) – and finally, it squashes the idea of sovereignty although in a very, very, very subtle way. You see, a country IS a currency. Until now, currency has always been tied to national sovereignty (although the Fed is private, USA only has one currency, the US Dollar, which is exclusively American). Bitcoin is a super-national currency, or really – the world’s first one world currency.
Of course, this is all great praise for the DOD which seems to have a 50 year plan – but after tens of trillions spent we’d hope that they’d be able to do something better than catching terrorists (which mostly are artificial terrorists)
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CRYPT ON - WHO ARE YOU Mr.Nakamoto

CRYPT ON - WHO ARE YOU Mr.Nakamoto
https://nakamotosatochi.com/
October 31, 2008, at the dawn of the global financial crisis, there was a document that appeared on the mailing list of cryptographic community appeared, it was called “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” the author of which was a person named Satoshi Nakamoto. In January 2009, on behalf of Nakamoto, there was a genesis block generated in the Bitcoin network, the hash files of which contained an encrypted message stating the title of the article from British newspaper “The Times” - 03 / Jan / 2009" Chancellor on brink of the second bailout for banks". A genius that was yet unknown to the world, had already hinted that the sad events of 2008 will repeat. The solution he proposed was a response to imperfection and depravity of the existing financial and credit system - centralized, corrupt, technologically imperfect and rapidly losing credibility.
People did not immediately understand what they were facing. But Bitcoin's fame had grown with it's price, and it had attracted the attention of the public. At the end of 2017, people went a little crazy. And the reason for it was Bitcoin. Watching at the rapid growth rate of the first cryptocurrency, people sold property, took loans and invested in digital gold, thereby increasing the market capitalization of it. The year of 2018, marked by a deep protracted downtrend, had brought many of these cryptoinvestors frustration and huge financial losses. Now the buzz around Bitcoin and other digital assets has subsided, and the cryptoindustry is beginning to acquire a legal field in a number of jurisdictions. And a lot of the crypto-enthusiasts are concerned with the same question, that did not find the answer to in the past 10 years.

Is Satoshi somewhere nearby?

Over the years that have passed since Nakamoto had disappeared from the network, many theories have accumulated conspiracy and versions of the origin of the creator of Bitcoin, and I spent a lot of time carefully studying them.
Here and there, new people who would claim themselves as Satoshi would appear. Some of them, such as the unfortunate Dorian Nakamoto in 2014, had become “Satoshi unwillingly” as a result of investigations conducted by nimble and nosy journalists. But there are other self-proclaimed “Creators” of the Great Chain, trying to earn their influence points on publicity. The most famous of the impostors is Craig Wright, an Australian entrepreneur with a doubtful past. However, Wright, like any other adventurers posing as Nakamoto, was doomed for failure and the loss of a good name in the eyes of the community.
In addition to it, there are other candidates for the role of anonymous genius. Gurus of programming and cryptography. Specialists involved in working on Bitcoin after the beginning of the network. The creators of other cryptocurrencies. For each of them there are a number of articles and materials that contain possible and not so versions of who is hiding under the name Satoshi Nakamoto.

Linguistic search for Nakamoto

Did you know, that there is such an interesting thing called stylometry. Linguists are using this method to identify relationships and stylistic similarities between the studied texts. A group of enthusiastic scientists from the University of Aston under the guidance of Dr. Jack Mane conducted a study called the Bitcoin Project, analyzing the similarities between white bitcoin paper and the texts of eleven man - the ones that are the best candidates for the role of the creator of bitcoin according to experts. The research results indicated an astounding amount of linguistic markers and similarities between the white paper of bitcoin and Nick Sabo's texts, the creator of smart contracts, and the concept called BitGold.
However, Sabo himself refuses to recognize himself as the creator of bitcoin, and he remains at his position. In addition to the Sabo, for the years of stylometric research a few more people had been quite similar to Satoshi in writing style and structure: Ian Grigg, Hal Finney, Wei Day Timothy May, Gavin Andresen. Poor Finney, who died in 2014 from severe disease, also came under suspicion because he lived not far from Dorian Nakamoto, who was mistakenly “exposed” and accepted by Newsweek correspondent Leah Goodman as the true Satoshi. During his lifetime Finny had clearly stated that he is not Nakamoto.
In 2011 Professor of Journalism Adam Penenberg for a few months studied the texts of Nakamoto. The analysis revealed a unique phrase - “Computationally impractical to reverse”, met, in addition to copies of texts by Satoshi only in one document - the patent application filed by Neal King, Charles Bray and Vladimir Oksman on August 15, 2008, 3 days before the registration of the domain bitcoin.org. The application described the operation of a peer-to-peer system based on cryptography. Penenberg stated, that the text analysis has shown a very strong similarity in style between those who have declared themselves on the net as Nakamoto and Neil King. And Neil King, of course had denied that he is Nakomoto.

However, invisibly, Satoshi is somewhere near...

According to scientists and experts who studied the texts of Satoshi Nakamoto, this person had to be fluent in english (and both British and American), have deep knowledge in mathematics, computer science, economics, sociology and several other disciplines. The name Satoshi Nakamoto has so many possible interpretations that can be related to blockchain and bitcoin, which makes it seem that it had rather “Artificial” appearance of the world. Was he the genius of his time? Maybe. But I am sure that this is, indeed, not one person, but a group of people who united their brilliant minds and ideas in the pursuit of a new, more fair and perfect world. These are people who do not seek glory and public recognition. These are the people who care. I believe that there had to be someone who was the root cause of this group, that had created a fictional Japanese name. Someone who is charismatic, ideological, someone able to light a spark in the hearts of future pioneers of decentralization. And he almost managed to convince everyone that he doesn't exist at all ... However, Satoshi is still somewhere near ... https://nakamotosatochi.com/
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CryptoRevolution - YouTube Bitcoin purchasing at Bitcoin ATM HOW TO SELL YOUR BITCOIN FOR CASH Who Invented Bitcoin? - Truthloader How to Buy or Sell Bitcoin Cash Anonymously in 2020

Neal King (he also goes by Neal J. King from Munich, Germany) is listed on a number of patent applications, notably "UPDATING AND DISTRIBUTING ENCRYPTION KEYS" (#20100042841) and "CONTENTION The world (or some part of it) first heard about this thing called Bitcoin in August of 2008. Two things happened then. First, on August 15, Charles Bry, Neal King, and Vladimir Oksman—three scientists/academics working in the field of encryption—filed a patent application for an invention for updating and distributing encryption keys. “Neal King Bitcoin” gets you two useless results, and neither have links with bitcoin pointing to their pages. ‘”Charles Bry Bitcoin” has zero results. In conclusion, each of the three On Thursday, bitcoin extended its rally past a new milestone, clearing the $9,000 barrier to set a fresh 12-month high to only come back down $500 dollars minutes later. Altucher is a Top 10 LinkedIn Influencer, the author of the bestselling book “Choose Yourself” and the managing director of Formula Capital Bitcoin last traded at $8,413.25 The following 10 characters have all been flagged as Bitcoin’s elusive creator. Latest News; Op-Eds slightly more credibly, a trio of researchers – Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles

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